94 terms

Biology 23-28

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Fallopian tube
one of the tubes leading from the ovaries to the uterus through which an ovum (egg) travels
Family
a group of related genera of living thigns
Fatty acid
long carbon chain that contains a carboxyl group on one end that combines with glycerol molecules to form lipids
Fermentation
anaerobic pathway of cellular respiration that converts pyruvate to either lactic acid or ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Fern
a primitive plant feathered-like in appearance
Fertilization
the union of an egg (n) with a sperm (n) to form a zygote (2n)
Fibrin
clot-forming protein in the blood
Fibrinogen
a large soluble protein found in blood which is converted into fibrin during blood clotting
Filtration
the process of passing a liquid through a filter, especially from the glomerulus to the Bowman's capsule in nephrons
Fission
reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two equal parts
Flagellate
protozoa that moves by means of one to several flagella
Flagellum
whiplike structure that grows out of a cell and enables it to move
Flame cell
a hollow cell that has a tuft of vibratile cilia and is part of the excretory system of various lower invertebrates (as a flatworm)
Follicle
a structure in the ovaries that contains a developing egg
Food chain
a chain of organisms along which energy in the form of food passes
Food web
complex network of many interconnected food chains
Foramen ovale
a hole between the right and left atria, present in all unborn children
Frame shift mutation
a type of mutation in which there is an insertion or deletion that changes the reading frame
Fructose
a very sweet sugar, C6H12O6 occurring in many fruits and honey
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone; a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of Graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates sperm-forming cells in male mammals
Fungi
a group of small, plant-like living things that lack chlorophyll and cellulose; include mushrooms and molds
Galactose
a simple sugar found in lactose
Galactosemia
a genetic disease (autosomal recessive) in which an enzyme needed to metabolize galactose in deficient or absent; typically develops shortly after birth
Gallbladder
organ that stores the bile made in the liver
Gallstone
a small and hard concretion in that gall bladder or its ducts
Gametes
mature male or female reproductive cells with a haploid set of chromosomes
Gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
Gametophyte
the gamete-producing phase in a plant characterized by alternation of generations
Ganglion
any structure containing a collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS or PNS
Gastric juice
the acidic digestive fluid that is secreted by the stomach and consists chiefly of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and mucin
Gastrin
a polypeptide hormone secreted by the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
Gasturla
double-walled stage of the embryo resulting from invagination of the blastula; the outer layer of cells in the ectoderm and the inner layer differentiates into the mesoderm and endoderm
Gastrulation
the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
Gene
a segment of DNA that contains information on hereditary characteristics. a unit of hereditary information. Most genes encode protein
Gene linkage
genes that are linked are on the same chromosome
Gene mutation
a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
Gene pool
the total sum of genetic information present in a population at any time
Genetic counseling
the counseling of individuals, and of prospective parents regarding their offspring, on the probabilities, dangers, diagnosis, and treatment of inherited diseases
Genetic drift
random fluctuation in gene frequencies, most evident in small populations
Genetic engineering
manipulation of an organism's genetic material to modify the proteins it produces
Genotype
genetic constitution of an organism
Genus
a group of closely related species; for example, humans (Homo sapiens) belong to the genus Homo
Geotropism
response to gravity
Germination
the beginning of growth by a seed
Germplasm
the total hereditary makeup of organisms
GH
growth hormone; somatotropin; a hormone secreted by anterior pituitary that causes growth of almost all cells and tissues of the body
Gibberellin acid
an example of one of the gibberellin family; a naturally occurring plant growth regulator
Gibberellin
growth promoter in the embryo of a seed. Gibberellins also promote stem elongation
Gizzard
muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food
Glaucoma
a disease of the eye marked by increased pressure within the eyeball. If left untreated, glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause loss of vision
Glial cell
cell that insulates a neuron and provide it with nutrients
Glomerulus
in the kidney, a cluster of capillaries that receives blood from the rental artery and that serves as a filter
Glottis
the vocal apparatus of the larynx
Glucagon
a hormone secreted by the alpha cells in the pancreas; it stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
Glucose
a monosaccharide sugar, C6H12O6, occurring widely in most plant and animal tissue. It is the principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body.
Glutamic acid
an amino acid
Glycerol
three-carbon molecule that combines with fatty acids to produce a variety of lipids
Glycogen
polymer of glucose used for short-term energy storage
Glycolysis
biochemical pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate
GnRH
gonadotropin-releasing hormone; a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that signals the anterior pituitary gland to begin secreting FSH and LH
Goiter
non malignant enlargement of the thyroid gland
Golgi complex
cell organelle of a eukaryotic cell that consists of flattened sacs and collects, packages, and distributes molecules produced by the cell
Gonad
an organ that produces gametes (ova and sperm)
Gradualism
the theory that all evolutionary change is gradual rather than occurring in leaps and jumps
Grana
stacks of thylakoids in a chloroplast
Gray matter
term used to describe an area of the brain that is rich in cell bodies
Growth hormone
somatotropin; a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells in the anterior pituitary
Guanine
nitrogen base of the purine class; component of DNA and RNA nucleotides. In DNA base pairing, guanine always pairs with cytosine
Guard cell
specialized cell that borders a stoma
Guinea pig
a kind of animal; often kept as a pet and widely used in research
Gullet
an invagination into the cytoplasm of certain ciliates, used for food intake
Gymnosperm
plant that bears naked seeds. Conifer is an example of this group
Gynoecium
the female reproductive organs of a flower; the pistil or pistils considered as a group
Habitat
the environment in which an organism lives or grows
Habituation
loss of responsiveness to unimportant stimuli that do not provide appropriate feedback
Haploid
having the chromosome number normally found in a gamete
Hardy-Weinberg Law
the concept that gene and genotype frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation in an infinitely large, interbreeding population in which mating is at random and there is no selection, migration or mutation
Helicase
an enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA to allow for replication
Hemocoel
a cavity between the organs of most arthropods and mollusks through which the blood circulates
Hemoglobin
protein of red blood cells that binds with and carries oxygen through the body
Hemolymph
fluid contained within the hemocoel of arthropods, functions similar to vertebrate blood
Hemophilia
an X-linked recessive genetic disease of bleeding disorder that impairs the blood's ability to clot and can cause excessive bleeding
Hepatic vein
blood vessel that carries blood collected from the liver toward the heart
Herb
a plant whose stem does not produce woody, persistent tissue and generally dies back at the end of each growing season
Herbivore
an animal that eats plants
Heterotroph hypothesis
anaerobic heterotrophic organisms may have evolved first, releasing carbon compounds into the atmosphere and allowing the process of photosynthesis to evolve
Heterotroph
an organism that cannot produce their own food and must consume other organisms to obtain nourishment
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a given trait
Hexose
any of various simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, that have six carbon atoms per molecule
Histone
a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids; present in cell nuclei in association with nucleic acids
Homeostasis
the ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment
Homeothermic
animals which control their own body temperature at some fixed value, warm-blooded animals
Homologous chromosome
chromosome containing the same linear gene sequences as another, each derived from one parent
Homologous structure
a body part with the same basic structure and embryonic origin as that of another organisms, though not necessarily sharing the same function
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