Millennium Development Goals

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What are Millennium development goals
September 2000, world leaders met at United Nations headquarters. This declaration endorsed by 189 countries. Achieve the goals by 2015. Over 20 targets related, 60 indicators for measuring achievement. Targets are monitored by international community, including government and non-government organisations, to determine the areas that require greater focus and develop appropriate, affordable and equitable strategies.
What are the 8 Millennium development goals 1-4
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
What are the 8 Millennium development goals 5-8
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
*Purpose
- Reduce amount of people whose income is less than US$1 a day.
- Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.
- Reduce proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
*Indicators
- Growth rate of GDP per person employed
- Employment-to-population ratio
- Proportion of employed people living below $1.25 (PPP) per day
- Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
*Importance
- Without an adequate income, individuals are unable to provide the most basic of needs for themselves and their families.
- Poverty means that a country does not have the economic resources to develop infrastructure and invest in education, health, political and legal systems and public institutions.
Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
*Progress
- Since 1990, more than 1 billion people have been lifted out of extreme poverty.
- Undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half.
- One in seven children worldwide are underweight, down from one in four in 1990.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
*Purpose
- ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
*Indicators
- Net enrollment ratio in primary education
- Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary
- Literacy rate of 15-24 year-old, women and men
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
*Importance
- For children to reach their full potential and for countries to develop, it is important that all children have the opportunity for a quality education that encompasses basic literacy and numeracy skills.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
*Progress
- The primary school net enrollment rate in the developing regions has reached an estimated 91 percent in 2015, up from 83 percent in 2000.
- The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen by almost half,
- Between 1990 and 2012, the number of children enrolled in primary school in sub-Saharan Africa more than doubled, to 149 million.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
*Purpose
- eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by no later than 2015
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
*Indicators
- Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education
- Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
- Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
*Importance
- In developing countries, women have less access than men to education, employment and health.
- Families are less likely to send their female children to school if separate and private toileting facilities are not provided for girls.
- Male siblings are often provided with educational opportunities before their female siblings.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
*Progress
- About two thirds of countries in developing regions have achieved gender parity in primary education.
- Today, women make up 41 percent of paid workers outside of agriculture, an increase from 35 percent in 1990.
- The average proportion of women in parliament has nearly doubled over the past 20 years
Goal 4:Reduce child mortality
*Purpose
- reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
Goal 4:Reduce child mortality
*Indicators
- Under-five mortality rate
- Infant mortality rate
- Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles
Goal 4:Reduce child mortality
*Importance
- Children who reach their fifth birthday have a much greater chance of surviving into adulthood than children under the age of five.
- Children born in developing countries have a 13 times greater risk of dying within the first five years than children in developed countries.
Goal 4:Reduce child mortality
*Progress
- The child mortality rate has almost halved since 1990; six million fewer children died in 2012 than in 1990.
- Immunisation against measles helped prevent nearly 14 million deaths between 2000 and 2012
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
*Purpose
- reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
- achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
*Indicators
- Contraceptive prevalence rate
- Adolescent birth rate
- Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)
- Unmet need for family planning
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
*Importance
- Approximately 287 000 deaths occurred globally in 2010.
- Maternal mortality rates can be reduced by the presence of a skilled birth attendant and access to emergency obstetric care.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
*Progress
- Almost 300,000 women died globally in 2013 from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
- The proportion of deliveries in developing regions attended by skilled health personnel rose from 56 to 68% between 1990 and 2012.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
*Purpose
- have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/aids
- achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/aids for all those who need it
- have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
*Indicators
- Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
- Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
*Inportance
- Rates of HIV, malaria and other infectious diseases can be significantly reduced through education and behaviour change.
- Providing antiretroviral drugs to those infected with HIV enables individuals to stay healthier for longer and continue working to provide for their families.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
*Progress
- Almost 600 children died every day of AIDS-related causes in 2012.
- Antiretroviral medicines were delivered to 9.5 million people in developing regions in 2012.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
*Purpose
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources
- Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
- Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
- By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
*Indicators
- Proportion of urban population living in slums
- Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
- Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
*Importance
- Ensuring environmental sustainability means that the needs of the current generation can be met without compromising the capacity of future generations to meet their own needs.
- Climate change is having a significant impact on the environment globally due to changing weather patterns such as drought and hurricanes.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
*Progress
- Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by almost 50 per cent since 1990.
- Over 2.3 billion more people have gained access to an improved source of drinking water since 1990, but 748 million people still draw their water from an unimproved source.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
*Purpose
- Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
- Address the special needs of the least developed countries and landlocked developing countries and small island developing states
- In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
- In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
*Indicators
- Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives
- Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
*Importance
- The cost of servicing debts (interest and fees) means that areas such as education, water and sanitation, and health do not receive government funding.
- The cost of medications may mean that people in developing countries are unable to meet other basic human needs such as food and water.
Goal 8:Develop a global partnership for development
*Progress
- 80 per cent of imports from developing countries enter developed countries duty-free.
- The debt burden on developing countries remains stable at about 3 per cent of export revenue.
- The number of Internet users in Africa almost doubled in the past 4 years
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