- Nok Culture c. 500-BCE-200 BCE
- Terracotta, hollow thin clay
- The inverted D-shaped eyes are characteristic of this style and are solid or pierced through give an alert look to face
- Elaborate hair styles or jewelry represent higher members of society or ritual status (that means they aren't doing manual labor, no baskets on head because of no pack animals)
- Holes in facial features allow air to pass through as figure is fired
- Nok culture might be built on a yet undiscovered culture because of such technical advancements
Hip Mask Representing an Iyoba ("Queen Mother"), Benin, middle period, 1550, ivory, iron, and copper, 23.4 cm tall

-in Benin (and many other African city) the head was the symbolic center of wisdom, intelligence, communication, and success
-the oba (king) was depicted in and commissioned work in coral, brass, and ivory
-artisans who served the king were organized into guilds and served in a separate part of the city
-this mask represents an iyoba (an oba's mother); possibly the specific woman Idia
-worn at the oba's hip
-had iron inlays
-necklace depicts Portuguese soldiers with flowing hair because they helped the African kingdom at the time expand
-in the crown Portuguese figures are alternated with mudfish; the mudfish mediates between land and water like the oba mediates between the human and supernatural worlds
Plaque: Warrior Chief Flanked by Warriors and Attendants
- Benin 1550-1650
- Warrior chief in ceremonial attire with rank indicated by necklace of leapord's teeth and coral decorated- cap and collar and elaborate skirt with leopard mask on hip
- Spear in one hand, eben sword in other: sybol of high rank in Benin
- Hierarchial order with chief largest and in middle, with others less important and smaller
- Warriors gesture of holding sword aloft still happens today and adds dynamic and authority
"Two artists" cylinder vessel, painted ceramic, Mayan, 675-750

-from present day Guatemala
-this vessel shows two artists working; one is using shell as ink pot
-they are possibly creating a codex
-Mayans did not have specific word for art but had phrases for painting, carving, etc.
-cylinders lend themselves to telling a narrative with shape
-red clay with slip and then colors painted on top
Atrial Cross, c. 1550, New Spain

Christian symbolism became inextricably mixed with the symbolism of their religious believes.
This cross carved by indigenous sculptors is a visual manifestation of those hybrid beliefs.
Didactic function (place in the church atriums). Religious chronicles note that children who were being taught Christian doctrine often fathered around a convent's atrial cross on Sundays.
Low relief reflecting native sculptural traditions.
Symbols probably taken from illustrated books and bibles.
Representation of the weapons that Christ used to defeat the devil [ These are known as Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion]:
Holy face (similar to that seen on the Veronica's cloth), crown of thorns, the column of the flagellation with the roosters of St. Peter's denial flanked by the sun and the moon (symbols of Old and new Testament), Christ's tunic and the ladder used for the deposition, the nails of the Crucifixion and a gush of Christ's blood, the chalice with the Eucharist wafer, the lance that Christ was pierced with, the reed which was placed in Jesus' hand as a sceptre in mockery, the pincers used to remove the nails, and the pole and the sponge, St Peter's sword, the ear of Malchus, and the hammer. Angels heads and pomegranates surround the inscription at the top as symbols of regeneration.
Stole that wraps around both arms are is a liturgical garment symbol of the immortality lost by Adam and Eve and recovered by the Redemption.

There is a dual character to these symbols because they are associated both to Christian and native traditions
Cross represents both Christ's redemption of humanity and the tree of life of Mesoamerican religions.
The blood that sprays out of the nails is both Christ's and the sacrificial blood of native religions.
Goddess Coaticue
- Aztec c 1500
- Aztec Mother/Earth Goddess
- "She of the Serpent Skirt"
- Represents equilibrium between elements of universe (life/death, heaven/earth, male/female, terror/magnificence)
- Gave birth to her son through her own death
- Hands and heart necklace- naturalistic and stylized
- Earth monster b/w feet essence over presence
Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805

-palace complex a synthesis of Roman, Early Christian, and northern style
-Charlemagne enjoyed hunting and swimming and thus built complex in the natural beauty of Aachen
-wants it to be center of an empire that will rival that of the Romans
-stone audience hall and chapel facing each other across square; kinda like Roman forum
-rest of building built in wood typical to the location
-central, octagonal plan like San Vitale but have added on to western entrance (called westwork)
-chapel used as place of worship, relic holding, and mausoleum
-had upper story throne room so king could be above in safety and see everything else
-inside veneer of colored stone imported from Italy inspired by Byzantine architecture
-also has two tiers of paired Corinthian columns
Gospel Book of Charlemagne (Coronation Gospels)
- C. 800-814
- Gospel book might have been buried with Charlemagne
- Page with Mathew conforms to idealized lifelike representations of Classical Greco-Roman
- Frame enhances classical effect as in seen through a window
- Lifted foot emphasized 3D placement in outdoor setting
Book of Durrow
- Iona Scotland c 675
- Format is like Roman Christian models but paintings are like Hiberno-Saxon design
- Each of 4 gospels introduced by 3-part decorative sequence; symbol of author, pure ornament, decoration highlighting words of the text
- Man denies lifelike form or earth-based spatial placement
West Portal, tympanum: Last Judgment, by Gislebertus, Cathedral of St Lazare, Autun, France, 1120-1135 (Romanesque)

-last judgment scene
-Christ in mandorla
-naked people coming out of coffins
-images of heaven on left
-image of devil on right
Batlló Crucifix, Catalonia, Spain, mid-12th century, paint on wood (Romanesque)

-clothed regal Jesus instead of defeated; looks introspective in this piece
-robes has kufic-like script on the bottom; Islamic textiles were popular at the time and Spain especially had Islamic influence
Abbey Church of Notre Dame (Romanesque)
- Fontenay France, 1139-1147
- Geometric plan
- Pointed barrel vaults over nave and pointed arches in side aisle bays
- Pointed arches are more structurally stable and can span greater distances without collapsing
Abbey Church of St Denis (Gothic)
- France founded 7th century renovated 12th century
- Attaining transcendence through beauty of material
- Trance-like state induced from gazing at shiny objects
- Light as a physical manifestation of God so walls composed entirely of stained glass windows
- Ribbed groin vaults put thrust out and DOWN lets thinner walls
- Plan of choir has semicircular apse and ambulatory and 7 chapels of uniform size
Ekkehard and Uta (Gothic)
- Naumburg Cathedral, Germany, 1245-1260
- Margrave: count of the march or border, territorial governor who defended the frontier
- Depicted with his wife
- Realistic and individualized
- Nervous fingers and spread of left hand adds to liveliness
- Polychromy: multicolored paint on surface of sculpture
- Descriptive realism and psychological prescence
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, France, 1134-1220 (Gothic)

-there are a lot of different pictures from this one so you may want to check it out in the book
-near perfect example of gothic
-popular pilgrimage site (had cloth Mary supposedly wore when birthing Jesus)
-also made tax money by having markets on the property
-royal portal on west facade would have only been used on special occasions; has jesus in center and many other figures like the apostles and the 24 elders of the apocalypse
-right portal has images of incarnation (when Jesus came to earth as human
-left portal has images of ascension (when he goes back to heaven)
-raised money by sending relics on tour
-expanded sanctuary
-window depicts story of good samaritan
Virgin and Child Enthroned (13+14th Itlay)
- By Cimabaue, Florence, c. 1280
- Hieretical Mary holds Jesus in lap, gestures path to salvation while looking at viewer
- Throne in architectural framework
- Highlights on drapery of thin gold captures divine radiance
- Viewer is suspended, looking down at throne and lap but straight at angels; this plus engaging gaze of Virgin and individual faces of men give sense of life and prescence and naturalistic warmth
Nanni de Banco, The Four Crowned Martyrs, Orsanmichele, Florence, 1409-1417 (13+14th Italy)

-Orsanmichele served as a grain market and artists were commissioned to fill niches with sculpture
-in this niche the figures almost come out at you with the feet hanging over the edge
-heaviness of figures shows Roman influence
Giovanni Bellini, St. Francis in Ecstasy, 1470 (13+14th Italy)

-like Flemish painting in the fine rendering of the natural world
-Francis had moved to cave in search of communion with God
-golden light Venetian in style
-uses symbolism to relate Francis to Moses (tree symbolizes burning bush and there are streams in both narratives)
Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (Northern Renaissance)
- Jan van Eyck, 1434
- Signature of van Eyck might be a witness to matrimony suggestion (van Eyck was here, not van Eyck made this)
- Convex mirror also shows front view of 2 visitors entering room in doorway
- Apparently marriage happened after his death so true meaning is unknown, might be a memorial portrait or a prospective portrait (betrothal)
- Darker jewel tones
- Surface details as opposed to human bodies and their proportions
St. Luke Drawing the Virgin and the Child (Northern Renaissance)
- Rogier van der Weyden, 1435-1440
- Virgin and child seem to have materialized to pose for Luke's drawing
- Based on Byzantine legend of miraculous appearance to Luke so he could record their appearance to pass on to followers
- Virgin is preoccupied with maternal routine
- Image of luke might be self portrait of artist due to pose
- Sometimes seen as Rogier distancing himself from identification with Middle Ages and claiming himself as creator of inspired sacred vision in inspired works of art
- Or claim of importance of painters profession because it is rooted in saintly legend
Workshop of the Master of Flémalle, Mérode Altarpiece, 1425-1430s (Northern Renaissance)

-some of the earliest and best Flemmish painters worked under Master Flémalle who many historians think is Robert Campin (which is a lot less cool)
-relatively small (2 by 4 ft when open) so it was probably for a small private chapel of the Mérode family who commissioned it
-another Annunciation scene (apparently the most popular thing to paint ever)
-many everyday objects have symbolic meaning: lilies = virginity, water pot = Mary is a vessel for baby, flame = god's divinity; it is snuffed out because he has just been put in human form in Mary's belly
-sort of hidden meaning but everyone viewing it at the time would have understood the symbolism (because everyone painted this scene...)
-peep the little Baby J flying in the window w/ a cross
-commissioners are the other people; it was common in Flemish painting to have the commissioners depicted w/ the same importance and in time and space with holy people
Madonna of the Long Neck (High Renaissance)
- Parmagianino, 1534-1540
- Made for a women's burial chapel
- Extreme elements of Rafael pushed further
- Drapery shows erect nipples so it is erotic, as well as self touch hand gesture
- Christ child is so still, reference to crucifixion already
- Seated on throne but no throne in sight, columns support nothing
- Startingly small St Jerome, blushing boys in back block background
Benvenuto Cellini, Salt Cellar of Francis I, gold, enamel, gem stones on ebony base, 1540-1543 (High Renaissance)

-Neptune represent source of salt (the sea is salty) and female figure guards pepper which is in the triumphal arch
-things on base represent times of day and seasons which relates to meals and celebrations
-figures leaning away from each other but relate well because they look at each other and mirror each other in posture; are related like how land meets sea in nature
Self- Portrait (High Renaissance)
- Sofinisba Anguissola 1552
- gifted female painter who made miniatures
- holding medaillion with name and home town and riddle with sisters names
-Northern Italy produced many gifted female artists
-bold in that figure engages the viewer
Il Tempietto (Renaissance Architecture)
- Donato Bramante, Church of San Pietro, Montorio Rome, 1504-1510
- Deep wall niches and contrasts of light and shadow
- Centralized plan with tall drum supporting hemispheric dome
- Small shrine over spot where Peter was crucified
Chateau of Versailles, France: original Louis XIII hunting lodge (1624) (Architecture 1600-1800)
- Rebuilding by Le Vau and gardens by Andre Le Notre begun in 1662
- Old chateau was left standing and new building went up around it
- 2 phases: first additions by Le Vau and then enlargement by Hardouin-Mansart (1678)
- Addition of long lateral wings and famed Hall of Mirrors
- 3 stories, balance of horizontals and verticals with open, colonnaded porches
Richard Boyle, Chiswick House, West London, England, 1724-1729 (Architecture 1600-1800)

-designed in 1724 by owner Richard Boyle, the third Earl of Burlington
-inspired by the Villa Rotunda and work of Palladio
-slightly less symmetrical with octagonal core and only 2 entrances
-Roman temple front
-William Kent designed inside and grounds; created what is known as an English garden