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Endocrinology Final

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VLDL
blood TH that originated in the liver
increased
VLDL synthesis is ____ when caloric intake is high
LDL
transports cholesterol to many tissues
HDL
transports cholesterol back to liver for disposal or recycling
B-48
Chylomicrons possess what apoprotein?
dietary TG
Pancreatic lipase converts what into fatty acis and glycerol
albumin
Fatty acids are bound to ____
lipoproteins
Cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids are transported by _____
phospholipid
Lecithin is a ______ in the blood
cholesterol
Roles include: component of cell membranes, precursor of bile acids, precursor of steroids
Acetyl-CoA
Precursor to cholesterol metabolism
HMG-CoA reductase
Regulates cholesterol metabolism
statins
HMG-CoA reductase is inhibited by _____
LPL
Hydrolyzes TG into FFAs and glycerol, anchored to endothelium of blood capillaries
HL
On sinusoidal surface of liver cells, hydrolyzes TG into FFAs and glycerol; does not react readily with chylomicrons, handles TG hydrolysis of chylomicron remnants and HDL metabolism
LCAT
Formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins
ACAT
Formation of cholesterol esters in cells
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Deficiency of LDL receptors; increases blood cholestrol
Familial combined hypercholesterolemia
Increased LDL and VLDL due to overproduction of VDL -> Increased LDL
Increase
Hypothyroidism causes an ____ in LDL
familial hypertriglyceridemia
Caused by genetic deficiency of LPL; increases VLDL and chylomicrons
decrease
Diabetes causes a ____ in LPL
increase
Insulin causes an _____ in VLDL
main cholesterol carrier in the brain
ApoE is the _____
increase
Catabolic reactions cause an ____ in ketone bodies
absorptive
Anabolic reactions take place during the ____ state
post-absorptive
Catabolic reactions take place during the ___ state
increase
Insulin causes an ____ in LPL
decrease
The actions of insulin result in a ___ in blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and fats
increase
Glucagon leads to an ___ in ketone bodies
glucose transporter
In adipose tissue and muscle, insulin stimulates insertion of a ____ into the cell membrane
increase
Insulin causes an ____ in the metabolism of glucose in liver cells
CLASS 1
Group of glucose transporters
True
Type II diabetes has a strong genetic link T/F
False
Type I diabetes has a strong genetic link T/F
Autoimmune
Type I diabetes is an ____ disease
ketoic coma
Failure of a patient with type I diabetes to take insulin could send them into a _____
hypoglycemic coma
A patient that takes too much insulin could send them into a ____
osmotic diuresis
Hyperglycemia can lead to ____, leading to dehydration and electrolyte loss
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Caused from an insulin deficiency, sending catabolic reactions out of control
IDDM1
Most well studied Type I diabetes risk factor
HLA genes
Contained in IDDM1, encodes immune response proteins
diabetes mellitus
Deficiency of insulin/insulin resistance
tyrosine kinases
Insulin and GH act on receptors that are ____
g proteins
Epinephrine and glucagon act on receptors linked to ____
cAMP
g proteins stimulate ___, a second messenger
sertoli
FSH stimulates ___ cells to produce inhibin
FSH
promotes spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of testes
FSH
Inhibin decreases ___
leydig
LH stimulates ___ cells of testes
testosterone
Leydig cells cause ____ to be produced
Estrogen
if testosterone is treated with aromatase from the fat and brain it turns into ___
DHT
if testosterone is treated with 5-a-reductase in the testes it turns into ___
androgen binding protein
Sertoli cells in the testes produce ____, which helps to concentrate testosterone to high levels in the testes
secondary sex glands
Seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands are examples of ____
LH
___ is needed to stimulate synthesis and release of testosterone
testosterone
___ maintains spermatogenesis
FSH
____ initiates spermatogenesis
FSH
___ causes the development of the ovarian follicle
LH
Peak levels of estrogen lead to peak levels of ___
LH
___ maintains the corpus luteum
oxytocin
Lactation causes a stimulation of what hormone?
menopause
ovaries fail to produce E and P
amenorrhea
failure to cycle
LH
High levels of prolactin inhibit ___ release, preventing ovulation
oviparous
lays an egg
ovoviparous
keeps an egg inside the oviduct
viviparous
gives birth to live young
estrus
periods of sexual receptivity
spontaneous ovulators
ovulate in response to hormonal changes at the end of the follicular phase of the estrous or menstrual cycle
induced ovulators
mating is required to stimulate release of LH, which then stimulates ovulation
testosterone
stimulates wolffian duct to develop to internal male organs
A-MH
causes mullerian duct to degenerate, prevents internal female structures
DHT
stimulates development of external male genetalia
Pseudohermaphrodites
have the genes and sex organs of one sex but the appearance of the opposite sex
Klinefelter's syndrome
XXY gene, seminiferous tubules do not develop, resulting in infertility; elevated E/T ratio
low
In klinefelters syndrom, testosterone production is ___
true hermaphordites
both ovarian and testicular tissue are present. Individuals may appear male or female depending on whether testosterone was produced in quantities sufficient to stimulate development of male genitalia
leydig cell aplasia
low receptors for LH on leydig cells
gynecomastia
enlargement of breast tissue; male disorder
hypogonadism
failure of leydig or germinal cells; male disorder
progesterone
___ is needed to slow the journey of the embryo in the uterus
estrogen
___ is needed for embryo implantation
placenta
membranes from the uterus+embryonic membranes
hCG
___ mimics LH
chorionic somatomammotropin
formed by developing placenta, causes growth of breast/uterus
estrogens
___ stimulate the excitability of uterine muscle and progesterone inhibits uterine contractions
progesterone
levels decline prior to parturition, which permits an increase in uterine receptors
prostaglandins
secreted by some species during labor, promote uterine contractions
oxytocin
directly stimulates uterine contractions, does not increase until after labor has begun
relaxin
increases flexibility and enlargement of the birth canal by softening the pubic symphysis
corpus luteum
relaxin is produced by the _____
mid-gestation
Fetal LH and FSH peak at ___ and are low at birth
placenta
acts as an interface between mother and child
immune suppression
placental production of estrogen, progesterone, hCG, and hPL may contribute to maternal ____
antibodies
placenta blocks and masks
IgG
only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta
passive immunity
IgG confers ___ onto the fetus
12
the fetus has IgG, IgM, IgD, and IgE after __ weeks of gestation
foramen ovale
opening between left and right atrium in fetal heart
fuctus arteriosus
Right ventricular blood is shunter by ___ to the descending aorta
Hgb F
fetal hemoglobin
higher
Hgb F has __ oxygen affinity and saturation than Hgb A
first
the fetal thyroid gland has developed by the end of the ___ trimester
second
fetal kidney is functional after the ___
dilute hypotonic
fetal kidney produces ____ urine
fetal growth
fundal height or ultrasound are used to determine ___
fetal well being
fetal activity and fetal monitoring are used to determine ___
nonstress test
measures fetal heart rate with an external transducer for 20 mins
increased blood pressure and proteinuria
pre-eclampsia is characterized by _____
vasopressin and angiotensin
During pre-eclampsia, the mother has abnormally increased sensitivity to _____
hypertensive encephalopathy
eclampsia is a form of ___ and is characterized by seizures
True
Cancer is the second leading cause of death behind heart disease T/F
prostate
Most common male cancer
breast
most common female cancer
benign
___ neoplasm have unregulated growth, but they do not invade tissue
carcinomas
cancers of epithelial cells
sarcomas
cancers of mesenchymal origin
lymphomas
cancers of hematopoietic cells
genetic
cancer is a ___ disease
inhibit growth promoting pathways
potential anti-cancer agents ____
epithelial
Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of ___ cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast
germ line
Not more than 10% of human breast cancer can be linked directly to ____ mutations
erbB2
member of the epidermal growth factor receptor superfamily that is overexpressed in most breast cancers
hormone
Breast cancer is a ____-dependent disease
FNA
Study of dominant mass requires ___
size of tumor
"T" criteria used for staging
lymph node involvement
"N" criteria used for staging
metastasis
"M" criteria used for staging
low
Tumors with significant amounts of fibrous tissue provide __ cellularity on needle aspirations
needle core biopsy
Offers greater sampling accuracy of tumors than FNA
multistep
Development of prostrate cancer is a ___ process
GSTP1
One early change during the development of prostrate cancer is the hypermethylation of the ___ gene promoter
prostrate specific-antigen
protease causes liquefaction of seminal coagulum