59 terms

Stampoulos WWII

WWII Study Guide
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Japanese American Internment Camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
442nd Regiment
A unit comprised of all Asian-Americans, and mostly Japanese Americans, who fought with uncommon distinction Italy, Southern France and Germany. The unit became the most highly decorated in the history of the United States earning 21 medals of honor among its members.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
WAVES
Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy
WAAC
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. Women volunteering for the army would not be given the same rank, pay, or benefits as men who were doing the same thing as them.
WASP
Women Airforce Service Pilots
Braceros
"hired hands": mexicans who were allowed into America to harvest crops on a short term basis
Victory Gardens
garden planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops
World War II Propaganda
- WWII created chaos in international communication: radio wars in 1930 for control of Europe's public opinion, Soviet Union being the first to use radio propaganda
- radio Wars 1930;s --> for control of Europe's public opinion
- Soviet Union 1st to use radio for propaganda
- Hitler come to power in Germany in 1933 and uses radio to propagate Nazi ideology
- British create BBC empire services in several foreign languages to Asia, Africa, and N/S America
- US launches Voice of America in 1942 which claims to be the truth about the war, to counter Japanese propaganda
- in reality all of them are providing propaganda
Fair Employment Practices Commission (Phillip Randolph)
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Rationing
Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.
War Bonds
certificates of debt issued by a government -- the government uses the money to pay for a war and pays the investor at a certain future date (Propaganda made people buy more, John Basilone and other famous people campaigned for sale)
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II (600,000 people)
Arsenal of Democracy
Referred to America's Ability to supply its European allies with war supplies prior to the U.S. entry into WWII.
Invasion of Russia
Begins June 22, 1941 Hitler invades too late and is caught in the harsh Winter (think Napoleon). suffer of frostbite and starvation. Suffered huge defeat in Stalingrad.
Operation Barbarossa
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies
Scorched Earth Policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Operation Torch
begun Nov 1942, American forces landed in Morocco and Algeria, and pressing eastward trapped the German and Italian armies being driven westward by the British, forcing German and Italian troops to surrender, despite Hitler's orders to fight to the death.
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
General Eisenhower
a five-star general in the United States Army and the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.
Fall of Berlin
In April 1945, surrounded by Allies to southwest & Soviet Red Army to the east, Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun & the Third Reich surrendered
Hitler's Death
April 30, 1945, after 12 years of rule, knowing Allied forces would soon be upon him (the Soviets are entering Berlin) Hitler commits suicide
General Montgomery
(1887-1976) British General who led the attack on the Axis powers in North Africa. His success helped the Allies gain control of the Mediterranean and prepare for the attack on southern Europe.
Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Invasion of Italy
Allied Powers decided to invade the island of Sicily to gain access to the Italian mainland. Used the strategy of "island hopping"
Teheran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Operation Overlord
the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
V-E Day
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Battle of Bataan
Last battle on the Philippines. Douglas McArthur.
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route. (60,000 soldiers)
Douglas MacArthur
American commander during the war against Japan; headed American occupation governemnt of Japan after the War; commanded UN forces during the Korean War ("I shall return")
Doolittle Raids
Doolittle led 16 B-25 bombers on raid of Tokyo and other Japanese cities. HUGE psychological victory.
Admiral Nimitz
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966), He decoded Japanese naval codes, planning to knock out the American fleet, but he knew the plans and locations of the Japanese ships.
Code Talkers
Navajo radio operators who helped secure communications in the Pacific
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Island Hopping
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Guadalcanal
site of the US's first invasion of japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the japaense attacked the american forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides. (John Basilone fought here)
John Basilone
American marine sergeant who was recognized for his actions at the Battle of Guadalcanal. He died on the first day of the Battle of Iwo Jima., held 3,000 Japanese soldiers off for 72 hours with only 15 men/came back to America, but wanted to return to war
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships., The 'divine wind,' which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281. (p. 365)
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 the largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of its remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines. First of the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots
Iwo Jima
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000. Showed that the Japanese would fight to the death
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945). (40,000+ dead)
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Election of 1944
Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with sweeping victory. 4th term for Roosevelt.
Bombing of Dresden
From Feb 13 to 15, 1945, created a firestorm that may have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants and refugees in German cities from Allies.
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Big 3
Stalin (USSR), Churchill (Brit), FDR (USA)
FDR's Death
• April 12, 1945
• Warm Springs, GA
• FDR goes with 2 cousins and mistress ( Eleanor doesn't go)
• Dies during sitting for portrait
• 4 term president, many people devastated
• Truman sworn in as president ( very unprepared)
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Unconditional Surrender
an announcement by FDR with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this. The conquered governments would be no longer, no compromise could be reached. Later people believe that this stiffened enemy resistance
Synthetic Rubber
rubber that comes from chemicals rather than from plants. made in World War II
Office of Price Administration
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
Minorities During the War
Segregated army groups still existed, women took the jobs of men at home, black people migrated north, Mexicans (see Braceros), Navajo (code talkers), Japanese internment camps (racism)