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AP Psych Review - Famous Psychologists - Mrs. Welle

Famous psychologists (and their most known accomplishments) that you should know for the AP Psychology Exam.
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Mary Ainsworth
Studied attachment in infants using the "strange situation" model. Label infants "secure", "insecure" (etc.) in attachment
Solomon Asch
Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.
Albert Bandura
Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective
Alfred Binet
Created first intelligence test for Parisian school children
Thomas Bouchard
Studied identical twins separated at birth
Noam Chomsky
Created concept of "universal grammar"; pointed out how children "overgeneralize" language rules and the concepts of "deep v. surface" structures in language
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Memorized nonsense syllables in early study on human memory
Erik Erikson
Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development
Sigmund Freud
Developed psychoanalysis; considered to be "father of modern psychiatry"
John Garcia
studied taste aversion in rats; led to knowledge that sickness and taste preferences can be conditioned
Carol Gilligan
Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships
Harry Harlow
Studied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers
William James
created Functionalist school of thought; early American psychology teacher/philosopher
Jerome Kagan
Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
Ancel Keys
Conducted semi-starvation experiments to measure psych effects of hunger
Lawrence Kohlberg
Famous for his theory of moral development in children; made use of moral dilemmas in assessment
Elizabeth Loftus
Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Stanley Milgram
Conducted "shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience
Ivan Pavlov
Described process of classical conditioning after famous experiments with dogs
Jean Piaget
Known for his theory of cognitive development in children
Carl Rogers
Developed "client-centered" therapy
Stanley Schachter
Developed "Two-Factor" theory of emotion; experiments on spillover effect
B.F. Skinner
Described process of operant conditioning
Edward Thorndike
Famous for "law of effect" and research on cats in "puzzle boxes"
John Watson
Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning
Benjamin Lee Whorf
Famous for describing concept of "liguistic determinism"
William Wundt
Conducted first psychology experiments in first psych laboratory
Philip Zimbardo
Conducted Stanford Prison experiment
Hans Selye
(Accidently) described General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Karen Horney
Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory
Martin Seligman
Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness"
Fritz Perls
Creator of Gestalt Therapy
Alfred Adler
Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order
Albert Ellis
Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT)
Aaron Beck
Developed cognitive-behavior therapy
Gordon Allport
Founder of Trait Theory
Phineas Gage
his survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us about the role of the frontal lobes (okay, he's not really a psychologist...)
Walter Mischel
offered famous critique of trait theory and its claims
David McClelland
studied achievement motivation; found those with high levels are driven to master challenging tasks
Mary Whiton Calkins
first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)
Charles Darwin
his idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective
Dorothea Dix
American activist who successfully pressured lawmakers to construct & fund asylums for the mentally ill
G. Stanley Hall
first american to work for Wundt; • Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first president
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)
Paul Broca
the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscles involved in speech was named for him, because he first identified it
Carl Wernicke
an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it
Michael Gazzaniga
Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients
Roger Sperry
like Gazzaniga, studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
Gustav Fechner
early German psychologist credited with founding psychophysics
David Hubel & Torsten Weisel
two Nobel prize winning neuroscientists who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception
Ernst Weber
best known for "Weber's Law", the notion that the JND magnitude is proportional to the stimulus magnitude
Ernest Hilgard
famous for his hypnosis research & the theory that a "hidden observer" theory
Robert Rescorla
researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
Edward Tolman
researched rats' use of "cognitive maps"
Wolfgang Kohler
considered to be the founder of Gestalt Psychology
George A. Miller
made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human memory
Alfred Kinsey
his research described human sexual behavior and was controversial (for its methodology & findings)
Diana Baumrind
her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoratative, & authoritarian)
Lev Vygotsky
founder of "Social Development Theory" (note: not "social learning theory" OR "psychosocial" development...); emphasizes importace of More Knowledge Others (MKO) and the Zone of Proximal Development
Konrad Lorenz
won Nobel prize for research on imprinting
Carl Jung
neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation
Paul Costa & Robert McCrae
creators of the "Big Five" model of personality traits
Francis Galton
interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement
Howard Gardner
best known for his theory of "multiple intelligences"
Charles Spearman
creator of "g-factor", or general intelligence, concept
Robert Sternberg
creator of "successful intelligence" theory (3 types)
Lewis Terman
advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
David Wechsler
developer of WAIS and WISC intelligence tests
Mary Cover Jones
"mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits
Joseph Wolpe
described use of systematic desensitization to treat phobias
Leon Festinger
described concept of cognitive dissonance
Paul Ekman
Interested in the universality of facial expressions: facial expressions carry same meaning regardless of culture, context, or language. Use of microexpressions to detect lying.
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability, anchoring, and representativeness heuristics
Raymond Cattell
intelligence: fluid & crystal intelligence; personality testing: 16 Personality Factors (16PF personality test)

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