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Studied attachment in infants using the "strange situation" model. Label infants "secure", "insecure" (etc.) in attachment
Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective
Created concept of "universal grammar"; pointed out how children "overgeneralize" language rules and the concepts of "deep v. surface" structures in language
studied taste aversion in rats; led to knowledge that sickness and taste preferences can be conditioned
Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships
created Functionalist school of thought; early American psychology teacher/philosopher
Famous for his theory of moral development in children; made use of moral dilemmas in assessment
Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order
his survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us about the role of the frontal lobes (okay, he's not really a psychologist...)
studied achievement motivation; found those with high levels are driven to master challenging tasks
Mary Whiton Calkins
first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)
his idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective
American activist who successfully pressured lawmakers to construct & fund asylums for the mentally ill
G. Stanley Hall
first american to work for Wundt; • Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first president
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)
the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscles involved in speech was named for him, because he first identified it
an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it
like Gazzaniga, studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
David Hubel & Torsten Weisel
two Nobel prize winning neuroscientists who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception
best known for "Weber's Law", the notion that the JND magnitude is proportional to the stimulus magnitude
researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
George A. Miller
made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human memory
his research described human sexual behavior and was controversial (for its methodology & findings)
her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoratative, & authoritarian)
founder of "Social Development Theory" (note: not "social learning theory" OR "psychosocial" development...); emphasizes importace of More Knowledge Others (MKO) and the Zone of Proximal Development
neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation
interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement
advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
Mary Cover Jones
"mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits
Interested in the universality of facial expressions: facial expressions carry same meaning regardless of culture, context, or language. Use of microexpressions to detect lying.
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability, anchoring, and representativeness heuristics
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