SS.7.C.3.12 VOCAB

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Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not equal in public education
Bush v. Gore
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that states cannot violate the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment when conducting election recounts
District of Columbia v. Heller
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own a firearm
executive privilege
the belief that the conversations between the president and his aides are confidential
Gideon v. Wainwright
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that the First Amendment does not protect all types of student speech in school
In re Gault
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juvenile court must follow the Fourteenth Amendment
judicial opinion
judgment by a court
juvenile
a person under the age of 18 years old
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not discrimination
symbolic speech
an action that expresses an idea
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student's First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school
United States v. Nixon
U.S. Supreme Court case that limited executive privilege
civil rights
the basic rights of citizens to be free from unequal treatment based on certain characteristics (e.g., race, gender, disability)
judicial review
the power of the judicial branch to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches and determine whether or not they are unconstitutional (this includes laws passed by Congress); the U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison established this power
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona
U.S. Supreme Court cases that upheld the Fifth Amendment protection from self-incrimination
segregation
the separation of people, such as segregation based on race