Environmental Science Chapters 6,7,12


Terms in this set (...)

Total fertility rate
Average number of children born per women during her lifetime.
Reproductive window
The period of a women's life beginning with sexual maturity and ending with menopause
Replacement fertility
The total fertility rate that remains a stable population size.
Our growth in numbers is a result of...?
1) technological innovation
2) better medical care
3) improved sanitation
4) increase agricultural output
Population growth is a problem if...?
1) depletes it's resources
2) stresses social systems
3) degrades the natural environment
4) our quality of life declines
Four largest population of countries
1) China
2) India
3) US
4) Indonesia
Population density & distribution
Distributed unevenly. Distribution is clumped mostly in temperate, subtropical & tropical. Lowest in deserts and tundra.
Is growth really a problem?
People can find additional sources to curb population growth. Nations can really benefit from a big population and can become stronger.

Quality of life suffers like recession, over consumption, unemployment and overcrowding. Not all sources can be replaced.
Ways to reduce growth!!!!!
Free access to birth control, family planning, one child policy in China, and increased access to education for females.
Demographic transition
Theoretical model of economic & cultural change. Explains declining death and birth rates.
Prediction: industrialization cause death and birth rates to decrease.
Pre-industrial stage
Conditions: 1st stage in D.T. Both birth and death rates are high.
Disease is widespread, poor medical care and supplies short.
Transitional stage
2nd stage in D.T. Decreasing death rate continued high birth rates.
Death rate: improved medical care, increased food production.
Birth rates: People aren't used to new social conditions.
Industrial stage
3rd stage: fall in birth rate. Now the gap in between death rate and birth rate decreases.
During this stage you're reducing the rate of population growth. Reason for birth rate is industrialization and opportunities for employment for women. Access of birth control.
Post industrial stage
4th stage: both birth and death rates have fallen to a low, stable level
Sex ratios
Naturally occurring sex ratio at birth. Slightly favored words males (more prone to die....****)
Little r
Exponential growth natural rate of population growth ( due to birth and death rates)
Impact= Population( always positive)• Affluence( always positive)• Technology( fraction can reduce impact)
Demographic fatigue
Many governments of developing countries have more youth and are unable to meet social, economic, environmental needs. Ultimately leads to failed states and riots. Leads to failed states.
Levels of Human agriculture
1) hunter gatherer
2) traditional agriculture
3) industrial agriculture
Thomas Malthus
He noticed that even though population growth was increasing the food production wasn't going to be able to keep up with the amount of people. He didn't account for the technological advance and decrease in fertility rate.
The Green Revolution
Transfer of new agricultural technology to developing nations. They're able to develop more food. Closes gap between production and need.
Subsistence farming
Cheap, labor intensive, low technology, lower production, and depredates the environment.
What are some major patterns
-increase use of fertilizers
-increased use of pesticides
-increased use of irrigation
-machinery intensive
Soil community. The six horizons?
O Horizons - organic
A Horizon- topsoil
E Horizon- Eluviated (leaching layer)
B Horizon- Subsoil
C Horizon- Weathered parent material
R Horizon- Rock
What's the problem with Pesticides?
Pests attack crops, pesticides are applied, most of the pests are killed, very few with resistance survive, some are naturally resilient and end up breeding to produce a pesticide resistant pest thus making the need for more pesticides that are more toxic.
Three big things agriculture depends on.
1) soil
2) water
3) energy
Sustainable trends
1) Crop rotation
2) Soil conservation techniques
3) substitute genetic varieties
4) local food sourcing
5) grain over animal production
6) recycling animal waste
Double Green Revolution
A 40% increase in food needed within twenty years. Needs to rely on biotechnology.
Transgenic crops
DNA technology. Incorporates desired genes into crops. We do this to make disease resistance plants, improved nutrition (bigger), able to sustain through a drought.
Genetically Mod Food problems
May cause allergic reaction, environmental impact, affordability to developing countries.
Food security
Assured access for every person to enough nutritious food to sustain an active and healthy lifestyle.
Lack of basic food for energy.
Lack of the essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, etc)
Lacking the adequate nourishment of the day ( calories)
Consequences of Famine and hunger hotspots
Civil wars, drought, soil degradation, government corruption/ incompetence.
Food aid problems...?
Does not alleviate chronic hunger, postpones sustainable solutions, does not help local agriculture, disrupts local economy.
Food aid and local carrying capacity
Population will go up with the help of food aid from other countries.
Lifeboat ethics
One option is not letting people into the 'boat', decrease amount of people, exceed amount of carrying capacity.
Entire area of land from which water drains into a given river.
Global climate change
Worsens condition by altering precipitation patterns, melting glaciers, increase in droughts and flooding.
Fresh water systems
97.5% of all water is in oceans. 2.5% is fresh water. Of this water 79% is in ice caps, 20% is in ground water and 1% is in surface water.
Porous, sponge like rock formations of rock and gravel that hold water.
Zone of aeration
Pore spaces partly filled with water.
Zone of saturation
Spaces are filled with water.
Water tables
Boundary between the zone of saturation and aeration
Area nearest a rivers course that are flooded periodically. Soils are fertile due to silt. Really good areas for agriculture.
Eutrophic lakes and ponds
Light nutrients and low oxygen conditions can result from human caused nutrients pollution.
Ocean water currents are driven by...
Rotation of the earths Coriolis effect driven by wind, heating and cooling, gravity and density differences.
All the oceans are connected and receive sediment, pollutants, organisms, surface water is warmer than subsurface water and deeper water is dense and sluggish.
The rising of cold, deep water to the surface. Rich in nutrients and high primary productivity.
Down welling
The sinking of warm oxygen rich water. Provides oxygen for deep water life.
Waterbodies where rivers flow into the ocean. They mix fresh water with salt water.
Salt marshes
Along costs at certain climates. Salt marshes filter pollution and stabilize shore lines.
Salt tolerant trees with unique roots. Habitat for fish, birds etc. protects coast lines from a lot of storms, protects coast lines, filters pollutants and protects coral reefs. 50% have been endangered.
Coral reefs
Mass of calcium carbonate mineral. Skeleton of coral. Composed of a lot of tiny dead bodies.
Water usage
70% is for agriculture. 20% goes to industry and 10% goes to the public.
Consumptive use
Water is removed from a water source and not returned.
Non consumptive
Does not remove or is temporarily removed.
Non point sources
Farms, lawns, golf courses use a lot of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. Things that lead to a lot of waste. Non intentional pollution. Have the most water pollution.
Point sources
Clearly understand where the pollutants are coming from. Sewage treatment plants, industrial facotories, etc.
Clean Water Act
Made it illegal to discharge pollution without a permeate. You're accountable for what you release into the environment.
Solid material resulting from treatmen. Decomposed microbially. Land filled, use as fertilizers.
Crisis environmentalists
Thought you could use economical incentives ( good or bad ) Compulsory abortion, anti fertility chemicals in the water supplies. China's one child policy.
Family planning
Free access to contraceptives, birth control, & abortion. MATCAB Bangladesh project.
Developmental distributivists
Free access to contraceptives & help with education & opportunities for women. Fig 6.13
The life boat
In the end you're just giving away your resources. Immigration can become a problem as well. You're giving away the potential resources that your own population may need in the future. The only way to let people in is to decrease your own population.
Sulfate aerosol
Promotes short term atmospheric cooling.