SS.7.C.3.8 VOCAB

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act
legislation that has passed both houses of Congress, has been signed into law by the president or passed despite his veto, and therefore becomes a law
ambassador
a person sent as the chief representative of his or her own government to another country
appellate jurisdiction
the power to hear appeals of cases that have been tried in lower courts
bill
a proposal for a law
cabinet
people appointed by the president to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers to the president
checks and balances
a principle of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches
city commissioner/council member
a member of the governing body of a city
committee
a group of House or Senate (or both) members that discusses and debates proposed bills; they may also discuss issues of interest to the country
Congressman/Congresswoman
a member of the U.S. Congress, typically used to address members of the U.S. House of Representatives
county commissioner
a member of the governing body of a county
court order
a formal statement from a court that orders someone to do or stop doing something
executive order
an order that comes from the U.S. President or a government agency and must be obeyed like a law
federal courts
courts that decide on cases involving interpretations of the Constitution and laws passed by Congress; the U.S. Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and is at the top of the federal court system
Justice
the title given to judges of the U.S. Supreme Court and Florida Supreme Court
mayor
the head of government for a city or town
ordinance
a law passed by a city or county that affects local affairs such as traffic, noise, and animal control
original jurisdiction
the power of a court to be the first to hear a case on a specific topic
president
the head of the executive branch
presidential appointments
the power of the U.S. President to choose members of his or her cabinet, ambassadors to other nations, and other officials in his or her administration
state courts
courts that deal with issues of law relating to those matters that the U.S. Constitution did not give to the federal government and are included in a state's constitution
state legislator
a member of the Florida House of Representatives (state representative) or Florida Senate (state senator)
state representative
a member of the lower house of a state legislature (the Florida House of Representatives)
statute
a law passed at the state level
summary judgment
a judgment decided by a trial court without the case going to trial; a summary judgment is an attempt to stop a case from going to trial
U.S Representative
a member of the U.S House of Representatives; representatives are elected in districts throughout each state
U.S. Senate
the upper house of the U.S. Congress
U.S. Senator
a member of the U.S. Senate elected to represent an entire state; there are two senators per state
U.S. Supreme Court
the highest court of the United States; it sits at the top of the federal court system
unconstitutional
not in agreement with the U.S Constitution
veto
a decision by an executive authority such as a president or governor to reject a proposed law or statute
World War II
a war that began in 1937 in Asia, in 1939 in Europe, and in 1941 in the U.S.; it lasted until 1945 and involved most of the world's countries
writ of certiorari
the procedure to see if the U.S. Supreme Court will hear a case; a writ of certiorari is issued when a higher level court agrees to hear an appeal of a lower court's decision
citizen
a legal member of a state and/or country
Congress
the national legislative body of the U.S., consisting of the Senate, or upper house, and the House of Representatives, or lower house
executive branch
the branch of government that enforces the laws made by the legislative branch
federalism
a system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local government
Florida House of Representatives
the lower house of the Florida legislature
Florida Senate
the upper house of the Florida legislature
forced internment
the confinement of a group of people, especially during a war
governor
the head of a state government
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets the laws made by the legislative branch
judicial review
the power of the judicial branch to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches and determine whether or not they are unconstitutional (this includes laws passed by Congress); the U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison established this power
legislative branch
the branch of government that creates laws
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
state senator
a member of the upper house of a state legislature (the Florida Senate)
U.S. House of Representatives
the lower house of the U.S. Congress
U.S. Representative
a member of the U.S House of Representatives; representatives are elected in districts throughout each state
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