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45 terms

Science 7-Chapter 3 Life Science-Words to Know

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DNA
The genetic material in the cell. Composed of C, H, O, N, P, and some S. It is shaped like a ladder with crosspieces on the ends and rods connecting them.
RNA
This is what carries the information from the chromosome to the ribosomes where proteins are made. It is a single strand.
mitosis
Mitosis is the processes of taking old cells and making them into two new daughter cells that are exactly like the original. The purposes of mitosis are to remake old cells, the organism can add new cells to get bigger and if a cell is injured or damaged.
enzyme
These are protiens that speed up or slow down the chemical processes in cells. It controlls the speed and activity the cell is doing.
element
Any substance that can be broken into smaller substances.
compound
When two or more elements combine chemicly, forms a compound.
molecule
Smallest particle of a compund.
organic
An element that contains Carbon and is very complex.
inorganic
Every element that does not contain Carbon.
protein
Also known as amino acids. They are a part of the cell membrain and make up many of the organells in the cell membrain.
lipid
Cells that store energy to be used later.
carbohydrate
Energy compounds composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
glucose
Product of Photosynthesis and component of Respiration.
C6H12O6
amino acid
Make up the protien.
nucleic acid
Complex molecules composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phospourus. Carry all the information necessary for an organism to carry out reproduction.
active transport
Any movment of particles going inside or outside the cell that requires energy.
passive transport
Any moement of particles inside or outside the cell that does not require energy.
centriole
The organelles in an animal cell to which the spindle fibers attach just before mitosis occurs. Plant cells do not have centrioles, because the spindle fibers attach directly to the cell wall.
centromere
The middle structure of a double chromosome that attaches the two halves of the chromosome together.
chromosome
The structure that contains all the info of DNA in it.
chromatid
One half of the double stranded chromosome.
eukaryotic
Cells that have a membrane around the nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. All organisms, other than bacteria, are eukaryotic
prokaryotic
Cells that have no membrane around the nucleus or any other cellular organelles.
food chain (web)
The circle of life where one type of organism depends upon another for nutrients or raw
materials.
regeneration
The process for an organism to re-grow a part/portain of it's body.
fission
One-celled organisms, like bacteria, simply split in half and make two cells out of one. Each daughter cell is exactly like the parent cell, genetically.
autotroph
An organism that can produces it's own food using the sun's energy directly.
heterotroph
An organism that cannot produces it's own food. It uses the energy from the autotrophs it eats to reun cell processes.
photosynthesis
A process that only autotrophs and plants do. 6 Carbon molecules, 6 Hydrogen molecules and water (H2O) enter the organim and prodouces 1 glucose molecule (C6H12O6) and 6 Oxygen molecues.
respiration
A process that all organisms do. It's the exact oppostire if Photosynthesis. 1 glucose molecule (C6H12O6) and 6 Oxygen molecues enter the organism and produces 6 Carbon molecules, 6 Hydrogen molecules and water (H2O).
fermentation
A process that releases energy from sugar without oxygen present.
latic acid
One of the by-products of fermentation in the human body. When the human body is
exercising and cannot breathe in oxygen fast enough, the body carries out fermentation to produce energy. This releases less energy and produces lactic acid which causes muscles to become sore.
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)
another by-product of fermentation in yeast and some other simple organisms. When they carry out fermentation, the alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced. Beer and wine makers, and bakers use yeast to make their product,
selectively permeable
Selectively permiable means that smaller particles can go throug, but bigger particles cannot. An example of this would be all cell membrains.
cell membrain
The cell membrain is a barrier composed of protiens and lipids. It is selectvely permiable and only lets in particles that can hlep the cell.
organelle
Any part of the cell that perfromes a function.
mitochondria
the organelle that breaks down glucose to release the energy needed for the
cell to survive
chloroplast
the organelle that contains the chlorophyll needed to carry out photosynthesis.
chlorophyll
The substance inside the chloroplast that is needed to carry out photosynthesis.
nucleus
The brain of the cell. Contains the DNA needed to carry out the functions of the cell.
nucleolus
The organelle within the nucleus that specifically governs the cells ability and timing for reproduction.
ribosome
The organelle that makes all the proteins cells need from DNA and RNA
osmosis
The process of diffusion of water. It moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
diffusion
The process of moving from ahigher concentration to a lower concentrtion.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
The organelle that moves proteins and enzymes around in the cell. The inter-cellular highway.