Honors US History Unit 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (109)
Push and Pull Factors
Push factor motivate people to leave their home countries. Pull factors attract people to new loations.
Christian group (or Religious Society of Friends) who believe in the presence of God within each person, often referred to as the "Inner Light." Quakers emphasize a personal commitment to God and humanitarian causes. They did not have a clergy, and considered women spiritually equal to men, Quakers established both men's and women's leadership for their meetings.
Individual who agreed to work without wages for a period of time in exchange for transportation to the colonies.
A staple food, product, or activity is one that is basic and important in people's everyday lives.
Crop grown for sale .
English protestants who believed in strict religious discipline and the simplification of worship; settlers of the Massachusetts Bay.
English Puritans who sought religious freedom and founded Plymouth Colony in 1620.
Groups who wishes to separate from the Anglican Church to begin their own churches.
Framework for self-government of the Plymouth Colony signed on the ship the Mayflower in 1620.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Was an English settlement on the east coast of North America (Massachusetts Bay) in the 17th century. The settlement was located in New England, situated around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston. The territory administered by the colony included much of present-day central New England, including portions of the U.S. states of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
He was sold into slavery, later acquired his freedom, and, in 1789 wrote his widely-read autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African
Three way pattern of trade that involved England, English colonies in the Americas, and West Africa.
The first African American to publish a book of poems. Captured at about seven in west Africa, she was sold to John Wheatley, a Boston tailor. The Wheatleys allowed her to learn to read write and study. She had her first poem published in 1767 in a Rhode Island newspaper. She won praise in the colonies and in Britain for her 1770 poem about the preacher George Whitefield. However, colonial publishers refused to publish a book of her poetry. Phillis and the Wheatleys found a London publisher to print her volume poetry, "Poem on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," in 1773. That year the Wheatleys granted Phillis her freedom. She married in 1778 but lived in poverty until her death.
He was a wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in what is now New England after Plymouth. "A City upon a Hill" Established a Republic, where puritan men elected their governor, deputy governor, and assembly.
A Puritan minister, came to Massachusetts in 163. He held that the king had no right to give English colonist land the belonged to the Native Americans. After a Massachusetts court banished him and his followers, William founded Providence, Rhode Island- on land purchased from Native Americans. He established religious freedom and separation of church and state. William also allowed all males who headed families the right to vote. In Massachusetts only church members can vote.
Hutchinson arrived in Massachusetts in 1634, where she held to boldly promote her idea that God's grace alone was the key to salvation. But the colony's leaders opposed preaching by a woman. In 1637, they declared her ideas heresy and banished her. She moved first to Rhode Island and later to New Netherland, where she was killed in a Native American attack.
Salem Witch Trials
These were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.
William Bradford was an English Separatist leader in Leiden, Holland, and in Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact while aboard the Mayflower in 1620.
The war was an armed conflict between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) which occurred between 1634 and 1638.
First settlement in North America.
King Phillip's War
Conflict between the English colonist and Native Americans in New England. Indian Chief named Metacom, who was known to the colonist as King Philip.
Daughter of Chief Powhatan, Pocahontas visited James town settlement and carried messages between the settlers and her father. Despite her help, conflict arose between the Native Americans and the Jamestown colonist. During a period of warfare Pocahontas was held captive in Jamestown. During this captivity, she and settler John Rolfe became engaged and later married. Both the Indians and the English settlers viewed the marriage between Rolfe and Pocahontas as a chance to end the war.
Sir Walter Raleigh
One of the promoters of English wealthy gentleman from southwestern England.He was a special favorite of Queen Elizabeth I.
Legal document giving certain rights to a person or company.
Joint Stock Company
A company run by a group of investors who share the company's profits and losses.
It is also known as the Lost Colony, established on Roanoke Island, in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina, United States, was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement.
Leader of the Indians.
A colonist who emerged as a strong leader. He was a British soldier who was a founder of the American colony of Jamestown in the early 1600s.
House of Burgesses
Representative assembly of colonial Virginia formed in 1619. First representative body in colonial America.
English colony that was under direct control of the Crown.
English colony granted to an individual or group by the Crown.
Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon.
Maryland Toleration Act
Passed on April 24, 1649, granted religious freedom to all who believed in the Trinity and that Jesus was the son of God.
He was a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia.
Private schools operated out of a women's home.
It was as an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. Poor farmers would not tolerate a government that catered only to the wealthiest colonists.
British policy in early 1700s which allowed the colonies virtual self-rule as long as Great Britain was gaining economically.
Legislative body of a country.
Eighteen-century movement during which European philosophers believed that society's problems could be solved by reason and science.
Economic policy under which a nation accumulates wealth by exporting more goods than it imports.
English document from 1215 that limited the power of the king and provided basic rights for citizens.
English Bill of Rights
Document signed in 1689 that guaranteed the rights of English citizens.
British trade laws enacted by Parliament during the mid- 1700's that regulated colonial commerce.
Religious movement in the English colonies during the 1730s and 1740s, which was heavily inspired by evangelical preachers.
He was an English Anglican cleric who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain and, especially, in the American colonies
French and Indian War
War fought from 1754 to 1763 in which Britain and its colonies defeated France and its Indian allies, gaining control of eastern North America.
He led the British troops against the French in 1754 in the French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris 1763 (Treaty of Paris)
An agreement signed by the United States and Spain in 1898, which officially ended the Spanish-American War.
Uprising in 1763 by Indians in the Great Lakes region.
Declaration by the British King ordering all colonists to remain eat of the Appalachian Mountains.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin's 1754 proposal to create one government for the 13 colonies.
A successful printer, Franklin's hunger for knowledge embodies Enlightenment ideas. He conducted scientific experiments and invented a number of devices, including the lightning rod and bifocal eyeglasses. Franklin authored almanacs and books.
Taxation without Representation
A phrase, generally attributed to James Otis about 1761, that reflected the resentment of American colonists at being taxed by a British Parliament to which they elected no representatives and became an anti-British slogan before the American Revolution; in full, "Taxation without representation is tyranny.".
King George III
King of England who saw the colonies as a sum of funds for his debt nation.
British Prime minister who set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent English wars and did so by creating a series of acts that raised taxes on American Goods (Stamp Act, Quartering Act, ect.)
1765- law passed by Parliament that required colonist to pay taxes on printed materials.
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1764 raising duties on foreign refined sugar imported by the colonies so as to give British sugar growers in the West Indies a monopoly on the colonial market.
A name given to a minimum of two Acts of British Parliament in the local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with any needed accommodations or housing
Imposed taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies. In response to the sometimes violent protests by the American colonists, Great Britain sent more troops to the colonies.
Was an American Revolution-era orator best know for his quote "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry was an influential leader in the radical opposition to the British government, but only accepted the new federal government after the passage of the Bill of Rights, for which he was in great measure responsible.
Sons of Liberty
Organization of colonists formed in opposition to the Stamp Act and other British laws and taxes.
Colonial consumers boycotts of British exports as a response to taxes passed by parliament.
Daughters of Liberty
Were a successful Colonial American group, established in the year 1765, that consisted of women who displayed their loyalty by participating in boycotts of British goods following the passage of the Townshend Acts.
Olive Branch Petition
Adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775, in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between the Thirteen Colonies, that the Congress represented, and Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict.
Incident on March 5, 1770, in which British soldiers killed five colonists in Boston.
A 1750 ad in the Boston Gazette sought the recovery of a runaway slave named "Crispas," but all that is definitely known about Attucks is that he was the first to fall during the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770. In 1888, the Crispus Attucks monument was unveiled in Boston Common.
Committees of Correspondence
Network of local groups that informed colonists of British measures and the opposition to them in the years before the Revolutionary War.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773, protest against British taxes in which Bostonian disguised as Native Americans dumped tea into the harbor.
British East India Tea Company
British trading company that faced ruin which was the reason Parliament pass the Tea Act, removing most taxes and bypassing colonial merchants, giving the British owned company an unfair advantage since they could sell their sea much cheaper than the colonial merchants causing the protests and the Boston Tea Party.
Exclusive control by one company over an entire industry.
American name for Coercive Acts, which Parliament passed in 1774 to control the colonies.
First Continetal Congress
Group of delegates that met in 1774 and represented all the american colonies, except Georgia.
Declaration of Independence
Document drawn up by the second continental congress that announced American Independence and the reasons for it.
A draftsman of the Declaration of Independence and the third U.S. president (1801-09). During American Revolution, Jefferson was elected governor of Virginia and after the war, he was appointed minister of France.
Universal rights, such as life and liberty, according to philosophers, derive from nature rather than a government.
The struggle of the former British colonies in America to gain their independence from Britain. Also called the War for Independence, or the American Revolution.
General Thomas Gage
British general who successfully commanded all British forces in North America for more than 10 years but failed to stem the tide of rebellion as military governor of Massachusetts at the outbreak of the American Revolution.
Trained citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.
Lexington and Concord
Kicked off the American Revolutionary War. Tensions had been building for many years between residents of the 13 American colonies and the British authorities, particularly in Massachusetts. On the night of April 18, 1775, hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to nearby Concord in order to seize an arms cache. Paul Revere and other riders sounded the alarm, and colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoat column. A confrontation on the Lexington town green started off the fighting, and soon the British were hastily retreating under intense fire. Many more battles followed, and in 1783 the colonists formally won their independence.
Colonist who remained loyal to Britain during the Revolution
Colonist that wanted independence from England.
Second Continental Congress
Assembly of delegates representing every colony that met in 1775 in Philadelphia.
Army that represents the colonies during that Revolutionary War.
Marquis de Lafayette
Served the Continental Army with distinction during the American Revolutionary War, providing tactical leadership while securing vital resources from France. Lafayette fled his home country during the French Revolution, but the "Hero of Two Worlds" regained prominence as a statesman before his death on May 20, 1834.
Battle of Saratoga
Two Battles of Saratoga were a turning point in the American Revolution. On September 19th, British General John Burgoyne achieved a small, but costly victory over American forces led by Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold. Though his troop strength had been weakened, Burgoyne again attacked the Americans at Bemis Heights on October 7th, but this time was defeated and forced to retreat. He surrendered ten days later, and the American victory convinced the French government to formally recognize the colonist's cause and enter the war as their ally.
Act of a slave owner freeing his or her slaves. Different approaches developed, each specific to the time and place of a society's slave system. The motivations of slave owners in manumitting slaves were complex and varied.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary war and affirmed American independence.
North West Passage
A water route to Asia through the cold waters of present day Canada.
Samuel de Chaplain
Founder of Quebec.
Coureurs de Bois
From the French for "runner of the woods," French colonists who lived in the woods as fur traders.
Person in French colonial America who was if European and Native American descent.
Anyone who paid for passage to Virginia or who paid for another person's passage received 50 acres of land.
Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland.
New England Colonies
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode Island.
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware.
William Penn was an English Quaker best known for founding the colony of Pennsylvania as a place for religious freedom in America.
The forced transport of enslaved Africans from West Africa to the Americas.
John Adams was born on October 30, 1735, in Quincy, Massachusetts. He was a direct descendant of Puritan colonists from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He studied at Harvard University, where he received his undergraduate degree and master's, and in 1758 was admitted to the bar. In 1774, he served on the First Continental Congress and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. Adams became the first vice president of the United States and the second president.
Thomas Paine was an English American writer and pamphleteer whose "Common Sense" and other writings influenced the American Revolution, and helped pave the way for the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Paine proposed a radical course of action for the colonies: independence for Britain, republican state governments, and a union of the new states. He denounced the King and aristocrats of Britain as frauds and parasites. He wanted the common people to elect all of their government, not just a third of it. Depicted King as the greatest enemy of American Liberty.
Battle of Bunker Hill
On June 17, 1775, early in the Revolutionary War (1775-83), the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill in Massachusetts. Despite their loss, the inexperienced colonial forces inflicted significant casualties against the enemy, and the battle provided them with an important confidence boost. Although commonly referred to as the Battle of Bunker Hill, most of the fighting occurred on nearby Breed's Hill.
Howe, Sir William (1729-1814) British general during the American Revolution. He fought at Bunker Hill and became commander in chief of British forces in North America in 1775. He captured New York (1776) and occupied Philadelphia (September 1777).
Battle of Trenton
1776 Revolutionary War battle in New Jersey, won by the Continental Army.
Charles Cornwallis led several successful early campaigns during the American Revolution, securing British victories at New York, Brandywine and Camden. In 1781, as second in command to Gen. Henry Clinton, he moved his forces to Virginia, where he was defeated at the Battle of Yorktown. This American victory and Cornwallis' surrender of his troops to George Washington was the final major conflict of the American Revolution.
Battle of Princeton
1777 Revolutionary war battle in New Jersey, won by the Continental Army.
Location in Pennsylvania where Washington's army spent a difficult winter in 177-1778.
1778 Revolutionary War battle site in New Jersey where neither side won a clear victory.
1780 Revolutionary War battle in North Carolina in which Patriots defeated Loyalists militia.
Site in Virginia where Cornwallis's army surrendered to Washington.