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chapter 7

DNA Fingerprints
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Allele
an alternate form of a gene;for example, a gene for human hair color may have alleles that cause red or brown.
chromosome
a cell structure that contains genetic information along strands of DNA.
DNA fingerprint
pattern of DNA fragments obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs(also called DNA profiling.
DNA probe
a molecule labeled with a radioactive isotope, dye, or enzyme that is used to locate a particular sequence or gene on a DNA molecule.
electrophoresis
a method of separating molecules, such as DNA, according to their size and electrical charge using an electric current passed through a gel containing the samples.
Gene
segment of DNA in a chromosome that contains information used to produce a protein or RNA molecule.
PCR
(polymerase chain reaction) a method used to rapidly make multiple copies of a specific segment sequence of DNA; can be used to make millions of copies of DNA from a very small amount of DNA.
restriction enzyme
a molecule that cuts a DNA molecule at a specific base sequence.
STR
(short tandem repeat) tandem(next to each other) repeats of short DNA sequence(2 to 5 base pairs) with varying numbers of repeats among individuals.
VNTR
(variable number of tandem repeats) tandem(next to each other) repeats of a short DNA sequence(9 to 80 base pairs) with varying numbers of repeats among individuals.