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Commonly used meds
Terms in this set (35)
Classifications of Insulin:
Rapid acting insulin, short acting insulin, intermediate acting insulin, long acting insulin, combination therapy (premixed).
Rapid acting insulins:
lispro (Humalog), aspart (Novolog), glulisine (Apidra).
Onset of Rapid Acting Insulins:
Peak of Rapid Acting Insulins:
60 - 90 minutes.
Duration of Rapid Acting Insulins:
3 - 4 hrs.
Rapid acting insulin nursing implications
Give within 15 min of meal
Clarity of Rapid Acting Insulins:
Short acting insulins:
regular (Humulin R, Novolin N, ReliOn N).
Onset of Short Acting Insulins:
1/2 - 1 hr.
Peak of Short Acting Insulins:
2 - 3 hrs.
Duration of Short Acting Insulins:
3 - 6 hrs.
Clarity of Short Acting Insulins:
Nursing implications for short acting insulin
Regular insulin may be given IV
Intermediate Acting Insulins:
NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N, ReliOn N).
Peak of Intermediate Acting Insulins:
4 - 10 hrs.
Onset of Intermediate Acting Insulins:
2 - 4 hrs.
Duration of Intermediate Acting Insulins:
10 - 16 hrs.
Clarity of Intermediate Acting Insulins:
Intermediate acting insulin nursing implications
Not given IV
Long Acting Insulins:
glargine (Lantus), determir (Levemir).
Onset of Long Acting Insulins:
1 - 2 hrs.
Peak of Long Acting Insulins:
No pronounced peak.
Duration of Long Acting Insulins:
24 + hours.
Clarity of Long Acting Insulins:
Nursing implications for long acting insulin
Not given IV
Recommended give once daily (subq) at bedtime
Some cases given two times a day
Acts as basal insulin
Don't shake insulin
Don't mix with other insulins
Use cautiously if pt. is NPO
What are the first generation sulfonylureas?
What are the second generation sulfonylureas?
Glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride
Lower blood sugar by stimulating release of insulin by beta cells of pancreas and causes tissues to take up and store glucose more easily
What is the difference between the first generation sulfonylureas and the second generation sulfonylureas?
1st gen- low potency and short acting
2nd gen- high potency and longer acting
Sulfonylureas adverse reactions?
1st gen- hypoglycemia, nausea, heartburn, constipation, anorexia, agranulocytosis, allergic skin rxn
2nd gen- weight gain, hypoglycemia, partic. in older adults
Sulfonylureas nursing implications
1st gen- responsiveness may decline overtime, given once daily with first meal, monitor blood sugar, hard to detect hypoglycemia if older adult or also on beta blockers
2nd gen- less likely to interact with meds
What drugs are biguanides?
Lower serum glucose levels by inhibiting hepatic glucose production and increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissue to insulin
Biguanides adverse reactions
Abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, lactic acidosis
Biguanides nursing implications
Many drug-drug interaction
Extended release tablets should be taken with evening meal
Use cautiously with preexisting renal or liver disease or HF
Discontinue 48 hrs before and wait 48 hrs to restart dosage after diagnostic tests requiring IV contrast media
Can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency
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