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126 terms

Chem II-Eureka semester one review

semester one exam
STUDY
PLAY
the density of pure diamond is 3.5 g/cm^3. what is the volume of diamond with a mass of .25g?
.071 cm^3
what is the density of 37.72 g of material whose volume is 6.80 cm^3?
5.55 g/cm^3
the measurement of .035550 g rounded off to two significant figures would be?
.036 g
the number of significant figures in the measured value .0320 g is?
3
three samples of 1.12 g, 1.8 g, and 1.562 g are mixed together. the combined mass of the three samples, expressed to the correct number of sign. figures would be recorded as?
4.5 g
how many moles of atoms are in 50.15 g of mercury (atomic mass 200.59 amu)?
.2500 mol
a prospector finds 39.39 g of pure gold (atomic mass 196.9665 amu). she has how many atoms?
1.204 X 10^23
the electron notation for aluminum(atomic number 13) is
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^1
in period 3 there are 8 elements. what sublevel(s) is (are) being filled?
s and p
the energy required to remove an elctron from an atom is the atom's?
ionization energy.
a measure of the abillity of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound is called?
electronegativity
when an elctron is acquired by a neutral atom, the energy change is called
electron affinity
withn a group of elements, as the atomic number increases, the atomic radius?
increases
across a period in the periodic table, atomic radii?
gradually decrease
the ionization energies for removing successive elctrons from sodium are 496 kJ/mol, 4562 kJ/mol, 6912 kJ/mol, and 9544 kJ/mol. the great jump in ionzation energy after the first electron is removed indicated that?
the noble gas configuration has been reached
which is best reason that the atomic radius generally increases with atomic number in each group of elements?
the number of occupied energy levels increases
the ionization energies required to remove successive electrons from one mole of calcium atoms are 590 kJ/mol, 1145 kJ/mol, 2912 kJ/mol, and 6474 kJ/mol. the most common ion of calcium is probally?
Ca^2+
the elctorns abailbale to be lost, gained, or shared when atoms form compounds are called?
valence electrons
what is the formula for the compund formed by lead(II) ions and chromate ions?
PbCrO4
what is the formual for aluminum sulfate?
Al2SO4
what is the formual for barium hydroxide?
Ba(OH)2
name the compound Ni(ClO3)2
nickel(II) chlorate
name the compund Zn3(PO4)2
trizinc polyoxide
name the compound the compound KClO3
potassium chlorate
name the compound Fe(NO3)2
Iron (II) Nitrate
name the compond Al2S3
aluminum sulfide
name the compound CF4
carbon tetrafluoride
name the compound SO3
sulfur trioxide
name the compound N2O3
dinitrogen trioxide
what is the formula for hydrochloric acid?
HCl
what is the oxidation number of oxygen in H2O2?
-1
name the compound N2O2
nitrogen (II) oxide
name the compound H2O using the Stock system
hydrogen (I) oxide
name the compound CO2 using the stock system
carbon (IV) oxide
the molar mass of H2O is 18.02 g/mol. how many grams of H2O are present in .20 mol?
3.6 g
how man moles of OH- ions are present in 3.00 mol of Ca(OH)2?
3.61 X 10^24
how may molecules are there in 5.0 g of methyl alcohol, CH3OH?
9.4 X 10^22
what is the precentage composition of CuCl2?
47.27% Cu, 52.73% Cl
What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 31.9% potassium, 28.9% chlorine, and 39.2% oxygen?
KClO3
a compound contains 259.2 g of F and 40.8 g of C. what is the empirical formula for this compound?
CF4
A compound empirical formula is NO2. if the formula mass is 92 amu, what is the molecular formula?
N2O4
The Haber process for producing ammonia commerically is rep by the equation N2(g) + 3H2(g)--> 2NH3(g). to completely covert 9.0 mol hydrogen gas to ammonia gas, how many moles of nitrogen gas are required?
3.0 mol
for the reaction rep by the equation 2HNO3+Mg(OH)2--> 2H2O how many grams of water are produced from 6.00 mol of hydrogen?
108 g
for the reactio rep by the equation 2HNO3+Mg(OH)2--> Mg(NO3)2+2H2O, how many grams of magnesium nitrate are produced from 8.00 mol of nitric acid, HNO3, and an excess of magnisium hydroxide?
593g
Acids Gernally release H2 gas when they reach with
active metals
acids make litmus paper turn
red
bases taste
bitter
bases feel
slippery
an oxyacid contains
oxygen, hydrogen, and on other element
which of the following is a chlorous acid? a. HCLO b.HCLO2 c.HCLO3
d.HCLO4
B
copared with acids that have suffix -ic, acids that have the suffix -ous contain
less oxygen
what aci is manufactured in largest quantity?
sulfuric acid
what acid is used mainly in the maufacture of explosives, rubber, plastics, dyes, and drugs?
nitric acid
what acid is produced in the stomach?
hydrochloric acid
what acid is found in vinegar?
acetic acid
what is the basic assumption in the arrhenius theory?
bc acids and bases conduct electric current, they must produce ions in solution.
what is an arrhenius acid?
a chemical compound that decreases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
what is an arrhenius base?
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
a substance that ionizes nearly completely in aqueious solutions and prouces H3O+ is a
strong acid
which of the following is not a strong acid? a.HNO3 b.CH3COOH c. H2SO4 d. HCl
B
which of the following is a triprotic acid?
H3PO4
hydroxides of group 1 metals
are all strong bases
which of the following is a weak base? a.KOH b.Ca(OH)2 c. NH3 d. HCl
C
a bronsted-lowry acid is
a proton donor
in the equation HCl(g)+H2O(l) yields H3O+(aq)+ Cl-, which species is a bronsted- lowry acid?
HCl
a bronsted-lowry base is
proton acceptor
in the reaction NH3 + H2O yields NH4+OH-, H2O is a
bronsted-lowry acid
a lewis acid is
an elctron pair acceptor
which definition of an acid is the broadest?
Lewis
a conjugate base is the species that
remains after an acid has given up a proton
how many conjugate acid-base pairs participate in a bronsted-lowry acid base reaction?
2
the two members of a conjugate acid base pair differ by
a proton
in the reaction HCLO3+NH3 yeilds NH4^+ + ClO3, the conjugate base of NH4 is
NH4+
in the reaction CH3COOH + H2O yields H3O^+ + CH3COO-, the conjugate base of H3O+ is
H2O
the conjugate of a strong base is
weak acid
if a substance has great tendency to give up protons, its conjgate has
slight tendency to accept protons
in the equation HI+H2O yields H3O^+ + I-, HI is a strong acid and I- is a
weak base
an amphoteric species is one that reacts as an
acid or base
which of the following is amphoteric? a. acid only b. base only c. acid and base d. none of the above
C
the substanced produced when KOH(aq) neutralized HCl (aq) are
H2O(l) and KCl(aq)
which of the following gases does not dissoolve in atmospheric water to produce acidic solutions?
a.NO b.NO2 c.O2 d.CO2
C
acids taste
sour
aqueous solutions of bases
conduct electricity
-ic has the suffix
ate
the tradition definition of acids is based on the observations of
arrhenius
a solution that contains OH- form a soluble base is
alkaline
when water is added to a basic anhyddride
a basic solution results
where in teh periodic table, are elements that form basic anhydrides located?
in the left and center
chlorine could be expected to form
an acidic oxide
acids react with carbonated to produce
carbon dioxide, water, and salts
magnesium sulfate is a product of the reaction between
Mg(OH)2 and H2SO4
in water, hydroxides of grouop 1 metals
are all insoluble
acid anhydrides and basic anhydrides
contain oxygen
which of the following has components that are obvioulsy different
heterogeneous mixture
all of the following are homogenious mixtures except? a. sodium chloride b. sugar water solution c. gasoline d. salt water solution
A
which of the following is not a solute- solvent combination? a. gas gas combo b. gas liquid combo c. gas solid combo d. liquid solid combo
C
which mixture contains visible particles that settle out unless the mixture is stirred?
suspension
whihc mixture contains particle sthat are in a dispersed phase and do not settle out?
a colloid
an aerosol dispenser contains a colloidal dispersion of
gas and liquid
colloids do what with light?
scatter
the tyndall effect is used to distinguish between
colloids and heterogeneious mixtures
to conduct electricity a solution must contain
ions
which of the follwing is a nonelectrolyte
a.NaCl b. HCl c. sugar d. KCl
C
increasing the surface are between solute and solvent does what to the rate of dissolution?
increases
raising the collision rate between solute adn solvent does what to dissolution
increases
what solution is at equilibrium when undissolved solute is visible?
a saturated
if the amount of dissolved solute in a solution at a given temp is greater then the amount that can permanently remian in solution at that temp the solution is said to be
supersaturated
the solubility of a substance at a given temp can be expressed as
amount of solute per amoung of solvent
the rate of dissolution is related to solubility how?
ITS NOT
in the expression like dissolves like, the word that refers to similarity in molecular is
polarity
endothermic dissolution processes
absorb heat and have positive heats of solution
which attraction releases energy
solute-solvent
increasing temp favors dissolution when
the heat of the solution is positive
the dissolution of gases in liquids is generally
exothermic
which of the follwing values for heat of solution at 25 degrees celcious reps the greated release of energy? a. -3.59 kJ/mol b. -.01 kJ/mol c.+1.33 kJ/mol d. + 12.40 kJ/mol
A
henrys law relates
pressure to gas-liquid solubility
the solubility of gases in liquids
always increase with increasing pressure
effervecense is the
escape of gas from a gas-liquid solution
as temp increas, solubility in liquids
always increases
which of the following is expressed in grams of solute instead of moles of solute?
molality
what is the molarity fo a solution that contains 125 g NaCl in 4.00 L solution?
.535 M
what is the molality of a solution that contains 31.0 g HCl in 5.00 kg water?
.170 m
how many moles of HCl are present in .70L of a .33 M HCl solution?
.23 mol.
the concentration of water solution of NaCl is 2.48 m and itcontains 805 g of water. how much NaCl is in the solution?
2.00 g
an NaOH solution contains 1.90 mol of NaOh and its concentraton is .555 M whawt is the volume?
3.42 L
How many milliliters wter are needed to make .171 M solution that contains 1.00 g of NaCl
100. mL