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Educating All Students Flash cards
Terms in this set (81)
Culturally Relevant Classroom Environment
Classroom environments that provide excellent teaching for students of diverse backgrounds so as
to achieve academic success, develop/maintain cultural competence, and develop a critical
School, classroom, and technology arrangements that consider the needs of all students to access information from the web while using technology to by pass all disabilities.
patterns of first- and second-language
Language learners typically acquire a new language in similar stages of development. How
we learn our first language differs from learning additional languages but there are
similarities in developing skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
cognitive learning styles
Cognitive learning styles are the information processing habits of an individual and
include one's typical mode of thinking, perceiving, remembering, or problem solving.
Cognitive style is usually described as a personality dimension which influences attitudes,
values, and social interaction. Numerous strategies exist to assist improving the learning
environment and interaction in the classroom for students with diverse cognitive learning
The cultural background of each individual also influences how one thinks, learns, and
behaves. This has a specific impact on children's attitudes and expectations around school.
As most ELLs come from unique cultural backgrounds, therefore, it is imperative that
teachers build their own awareness and knowledge of their students' background to
integrate, support, and value within their education. This means that teachers use
students' own backgrounds and knowledge to build bridges to content understandings.
As with all children, there are exceptional cases where certain ELLs may not develop
language abilities in the same way as most children. Some ELLs may have specific language
learning delays or disabilities. It is important to be able to distinguish language disabilities
from normal second language development.
prior experiences with the second language
It is important to evaluate ELLs previous experience learning English to better understand
how long each student has been learning English, and the types of supports received.
interrupted, limited, or no formal education
Many ELLs have not received consistent formal education due to immigration, these
students are sometime referred to as 'students with interrupted formal education' (SIFE).
Unique considerations and accommodations must be given to these students as they are at
risk for academic difficulties and are performing below grade level expectations.
It is important to create a learning environment where ELLs feel represented and valued,
bringing their cultures into the classroom in a meaningful way. By creating a "culturally
relevant" learning environment all students benefit from understanding how their
learning relates to different cultures.
The primary, or first, language of ELLs, sometimes referred to as L1. Primary language
should be supported and developed in the school. Research has clearly demonstrated the
benefits of utilizing children's language abilities in their first language to promote second
language and content area knowledge.
literacy in the primary language
Children who have developed literacy and have more experience with reading and writing
in their first language are more likely to develop second language literacy skills faster and
with greater ease.
It is important to build on children's literacy skills they have developed in their primary
types and benefits of bilingualism
Bilingual Children differ in many ways. Bilingual Children, for example, may be born knowing a second language and some may acquire a second language after their first language. Sequential bilingualism are for children who learn a language after their first language and simultaneous bilingualism are for children who are born knowing two languages.
types and benefits of bilingual programs
The typical bilingual programs are transitional, dual, and developmental bilingualism (TDD)
Transitional Bilingualism Education
When teaching content, educators must provide materials and instruction in the native language as they acquire English.
Developmental Bilingualism Education
The Child's native language accompanied with instruction in English for a period of time. The goal is to increase the literacy level of the child in the native so that he or she can transfer these skills to another language.
Dual language Program
Designed for native and nonnative English speakers to increase their bi literacy and bilingualism as well as cultural competence, and academic achievement.
Lau V. Nichols
The 1974 supreme court case which states that limited English Language Learners must be provided with language support.It calls for some effective educational programming to open access to instructions for ELLs.
Transfer Literacy Skill
is when a student has developed their literacy skills in one language and then they are able to use these same skills in the secondary language.
Research based instructional strategies
Strategies that are researched based and are proven to be effective.
is consistent targeted guidance by modeling task and language, and by building background knowledge as well as offering feedback. This reduces the complexity of a task and it assist learners in progressing to the next level.
are task or issues that are of interest to students and replicate real world situations.
IDEA( Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
thirteen disabilities fall under this act. If any student has one or more of these disabilities, then the school must provide students with services and accommodations free of charge.
A disorder characterized by an extreme difficulty in socialization. This disability varies from mild to severe.
A Simultaneous significant hearing loss and vision loss.
a complete or partial loss of hearing
Significant problem in the social- emotional area to a degree where learning is impaired.
Significant limitations on intellectual abilities and behavioral adaptability; this disability ranges in severity.
a disability that effects the processing of information; the disability effects the areas of reading, writing, and computing. The majority of students who suffers from this disability receive special education services.
the simultaneous existence of several disabilities. Since there are several disabilities, one cannot be identified as primary. For instance, Intellectual and physical disability.
A disability that impact motor activities because of physical limitation.
Other Health Impairment
a disability so significant and severe that it negatively impacts learning. For example Sickle Cell anemia or diabetes.
a nonspecific disability that states may choose as an alternative for a specific disability for children up to the age of nine.
Traumatic Brain Injury
A medical condition denoting serious brain injury that occurs as a result of an injury or accident; this may potentially effect ones ability to learn, behave, socialize, and the processing as well as the expressing of language.
Conditions in which an individual has an inability or limited ability to receive information visually, so much that it interference with learning.
A language base disability in which a person has a hard time understanding written word. It may also be referred as reading disability or reading disorder.
A mathematical disability in which a person demonstrates having a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping mathematical materials.
A writing disability that makes it hard for individuals to form letters or write within a defined space.
Auditory and Visual processing disorder
Sensory disability in which a person has a difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.
Nonverbal learning disability
A neurological disorder that originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, and it mainly effects ones visual, organizational , Intuitive, and holistic processing functions.
The process of gathering information to make educational decision. The most common ways to test are through Standardize test, test administered by teachers, high stake test, commercial test,
Curriculum based assessment
Methods of measuring the level of achievements of content taught in the classroom.
Universal Design of lesson
The design of instructional materials, methods, and assessments to meet a diverse student population need. This will lower labor intensive adaptations. Also called accessibility or access.
This is also called "the silent" period, when a student takes in new language but doesn't speak it. The pre-production period can last from six weeks and longer.
The individuals begin to speak using short words and sentences, but the emphasis is on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors in the early production stage.
Speech becomes more frequent words, sentences are longer, but the individual relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary begins to increase and errors begin to decrease.
speech is fairly fluent in social situations with minimal errors. New context and academic language are fairly challenging and individuals will struggle to express themselves due to gaps in vocabulary and appropriate phrases.
Communicating in the second language is fluent, especially in social language situations. The individual is able to communicate fluently in new situations or in academic areas, but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge and some unknown expression. There are very few errors, and the individual is able to demonstrate higher order thinking in the second language such as offering an opinion or analyzing a problem.
The individual communicates fluently in all context and can maneuver successfully in new context and when exposed to new academic information. At this stage, the individual may still have an accent and use idiomatic expressions incorrectly at times, but the individual is essentially fluent and comfortable in communicating in the second language.
Maximizing oral comprehension for ELL before lecture
....prime/ build background knowledge of foreign concept through images or videos
Give Students simple summary before teaching the lesson
preview key vocabulary words with visuals/ student friendly definitions/ concepts
Maximizing oral comprehension while teaching
Explain instructions in simpler terms
scaffold lengthy passages or instructions into smaller chunks
Repeat/Record key concept on board
Model summarizing- summarize the main idea of the lesson, orally and in writing
Any piece of equipment that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of
a child with a disability.
A strategy for accommodating students with special needs in the classroom. It has seven steps:
Identify classroom demands, Note student strengths and needs, Check for success, Look for
problem areas, Use information to brainstorm, Differentiate instruction and Evaluate progress
A form of instruction that meets students' diverse needs by providing materials and tasks of varied
levels of difficulty, with varying degrees of support through multiple instruction groups and time
Special Education Teachers
Referred to as Intervention Specialist. Teacher's primary responsibility is delivering and managing
the delivery of special education services to students with disabilities.
Specialists with expertise to give individual assessments of students in cognitive, academic, social,
emotional, and behavioral domains. This professional also designs strategies to address students' academic and social behavioral problems
Specialist with expertise in meeting students' social and affective needs
Speech and Language Therapist Specialist with expertise in meeting students' communication
needs, including articulation and language development
Specialist with expertise in meting students' social needs and fostering working relationships with
Noncertified staff member employed to assist certified staff in carrying out education programs
and otherwise help in the instruction of students with disabilities
Specialist with expertise in meeting students' needs in fine motor skills, including self-help skills
such as feeding and dressing
Specialist with expertise in meeting students' needs in gross motor skills, large muscle activities.
Adaptive Physical Educator
Designs special education activities for students with physical health or other special needs that
affect participation in the traditional programs.
Serves as an advisor and sometimes represents parents at meetings related to their children with
Intervention Assistance Team
A team, usually includes general education teachers, special service personal and an administrator,
that analyzes the strengths and challenges of referred students to identify strategies to address
Confidentiality and FERPA
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act - A federal law that mandates that educational agencies
and institutions must provide students with access to their educational records and some control
over the disclosure of information from the records
The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that prohibits discrimination against all
individuals with disabilities in programs that receive federal funds
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The setting as similar as possible to that for students without disabilities in which students with
disabilities can be educated, with appropriate supports provided
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Document that outlines all the special education services that a student is to receive.
Response to Intervention (RtI)
An approach for the identification of learning disabilities based on whether student learning
progress improves or fails to improve after the student receives increasingly intense, researchbased
The process used in RtI to assess all students to identify those who are having difficulty learning
despite evidence based Tier I instruction.
Tier 1 Instruction
Instruction in RtI that is evidence based and provided to all students in a classroom.
Tier 2 Instruction
Instruction in small group sessions that provide extra practice of targeted skills and content
covered in Tier 1
Tier 3 Instruction
Highly intensive instruction matched to the individual needs of students who continue to struggle,
despite well delivered evidence-based instruction in Tier 2.
Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
Strategies for preventing behavior challenges as well as techniques for addressing common and
intensive behavior problems; PBIS is based on clearly defined outcomes, behavioral science,
research-validated practices and systematic approaches. They are grouped by their intensity.
Primary Prevention, Secondary Prevention and Tertiary Prevention (Individual Level)
Intervention Plan (BIP)
A detailed strategy, developed on the basis of a functional behavior assessment, to address
significant behavior problems.
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
The process of gathering detailed data on student's behavior and the context in which it occurs so
that a Behavior Intervention Plan can be created.
Present Level of Performance, Annual Goals and Short Term Objectives, Extent of Participation in
General Education, Services and Modifications Needed, Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Research-based instructional approach in which the teacher presents subject matters using a
review of previously taught information, presentation of new concepts or skills, guided practice,
feedback and correction, independent student practice an frequent review
Guided Instruction or Practice
A technique for providing students with verbal or written prompts when attempting a new or
Students with disabilities are integrated into the general education setting whether or not they can
meet the traditional curricular standards
Instructional Approach in which two or more teacher or other certified staff share the instruction
for a single group of student in a single classroom setting. Also called CTT.
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