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144 terms

Honors Biology Semester Exam

Study guide
STUDY
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Sedimentary rock is formed from
small particles of sand, silt, and clay
A farmer sprays insecticide on his crops to kill unwated insects. Most of the insects die, and the chemicals have the effect of damaging the DNA of the insects that are not killed. What has happened?
Mutations have arisen that may have altered allele frequencies.
In genetic drift, the allele frequencies in a gene pool change because of
Chance
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called
Geographic isolation
a plant evolves a high level of poison that enables it to defend itself agasint insects. Soon an insect that perfers to eat this plant evolves an enzyme that breaks down the poison. This is an example of
coevolution
Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
fitness
According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environmet. Their survivel is due to the
possession of inherited adaptions that maximize fitness
Genetic drift tends to occur in populations that
are small
According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have
variations best suited to environmental conditions
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock formations, such as rock layers, for and change over time was
James Hutton
The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it
prevents interbreeding between the populations
Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
surviving in environments in which they lived
Based on the adaptions Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, he wondered
if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species
Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
surviving in the environments in which they lived
In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
inheritance of acquired characteriscs
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggest that
the earth is serveral million years old
Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes
the nearly universal genetic code
Which statement about evolution in the Galapagos finches are true
Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food
In the past, mass extinctions encourages the rapid evolution of survivng species
by making new habitats available to them
Which is the first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galapagos finches
founders arrived
The genes carried by all members of a particular population make up the population's
gene pool
The situation in which allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population remain constant is called
genetic equilibrium
Darwin's concept of natural selection was not influenced by
knowledge about the structure of DNA
Gradualism is a pattern of evolution in which
a species evolves at a slow, steady pace
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galapagos Islands caried in certain structural adaptations. One of the most significant adaptations that Darwin noted was the
bird's different shaped beaks
In a fox population, the allele frequency of a gene for red fur changes from 20 to 30 percent. What can you say about that population of foxes?
The population is evolving
Flowers and pollinating insects are examples of?
Coevolution
When a dairy farmer chooses to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are following the principle of
artifical selection
A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is
reproductive isolation
According to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a oopulation of mice if
no natural selection takes place
What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day?
Temporal isolation
Which of the following statements defines the members of a species?
They mate and produce offspring
In a certain population of 100 individuals, one fourth of the individuals have the genotype AA, half have the genotype Aa, and one fourth have the genotype aa. One day, 10 individuals with the genotype aa leave the area and cross a river into a new habitat. Which process has changed the populations gene pool?
emigration
Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population?
mating that is not random
The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
without certain checks on population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called
coevolution
The hypothesis that all species are descended from common ancestors was proposed by
Charles Darwin
Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have
fewer phenotypes
A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a
mutation
A pattern in which species experience long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change is called
punctuated equilibrium
The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called
the founder effect
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists
suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
Lamarck's ideas about evolution include the concept that differences among the traits of organisms arise a resulf of
the actions of organsisms as they use or fail to use body structures
Which statement abou the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?
They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment
The australian flying phalanger is a marsupial flying squirrel. Its appearance, behavior, environment and diet closely resemble those of the American flying squirrel, a placental mammal. This resembalence is most likely due to
convergent evolution
If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?
whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards
Although they often live in the same habitat, the American toad breeds earlier in the spring than the Fowler's toad does. What can be inferred from this information?
The two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation
Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as
useful support for his theory
A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone
adaptive radiation
The frequency of phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as
a bell shaped curve
One of the conditions requierd to maintain genetic equilibriumis
no immigration or emigration
All fungi are
heterotrophic eukaryotes
Of the follwoing locations, you would most likely find mosses growing in
shaded ground near a small pond
The flat structure of a leaf blade enables its functionas a photosynthetic organ by
exposing a great surface area to capture energy from sunlight
Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in the
mesophyll
In bryophytes, which of the following structures is like a root?
rhizoid
Most plants are
multicellular, eukaryotic autotrophs
Bryophytes must live in moist areas because they lack vascular tissue. For what other reason do they need to live in moist areas?
The sperm of bryophytes need water to swim to an egg
An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is
breaking down dead organisms
Bread mold belongs to which group?
zygomycota
If some of the xylem of a young oak tree were destroyed, it would first interfere with the tree's ability to
conduct water to the leaves
Many cacti, such as saguaros and barrel cacti, have large stems and no leaves. What function of leaves is taken on by the stems of such cacti?
They produce food by photosynthesis.
The tangled mass that makes up the part of a fungus that is below the soil is the
mycelium
What is one reason that vascular plants are larger than nonvascular plants?
Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients much more efficiently than can be carried by diffusion.
In seed plants, the entire male gametophyte is contained in a
pollen grain.
In which of the following environments are green algae NOT found?
dry areas on land
What might a thin tree ring indicate?
a year of drought
The closing of a plant's stomata will
cause less water to be pulled up from the plant's roots.
During pollination in seed plants, pollen grains
are carried to female reproductive structures by wind or animals.
Plants use the energy of sunlight to
carry out photosynthesis.
Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and a protective covering?
seed
In seed plants, what is an important difference between gymnosperms and most angiosperms?
In gymnosperms, male gametophytes and female gametophytes are produced in different structures, while in angiosperms they are usually produced in the same structure.
Unlike a dicot, a monocot has
parallel leaf veins.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of a leaf through the
stomata
Plants and fungi are similar to each other because:
they both have cell walls
A mushroom is a
fruiting body.
The gametophytes of gymnosperms are found inside reproductive structures called
cones.
Which type of vascular tissue carries solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis?
phloem
A seed plant is held in the ground by its
roots
Because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they
grow close to the ground.
How have the sporophyte and gametophyte changed as plants have evolved?
The gametophyte has become smaller, and the sporophyte has become larger.
Lichens play an important role in soil formation because they
are often the first organisms to enter barren environments.
If I am 2N before meiosis, after meiosis, I will be:
N
Lichen
mutualism
ring worm
parasitism
mycorrhizae
mutualism
athlete's foot
parasitism
means both organsisms benefit and neither is harmed
mutalism
means one organism benefits and one is harmed
parasitism
Vascular tissue in plants consists of
xylem and phloem.
If plants need oxygen for cellular respiration, then why do plants release oxygen into the atmosphere?
More oxygen is produced during photosynthesis than the plant needs for cellular respiration, so the plant needs to release the extra oxygen.
In plants, the diploid phase is known as
the sporophyte.
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that
their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur.
The ancestors of land plants likely evolved from
an organism similar to green algae.
Spores are always:
haploid
In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and
vessel elements.
The root cap is a tough structure that protects the
meristem
During primary growth, a stem
increases in length.
In gymnosperms, the female gametophyte develops inside the
ovules
Which of the following describes the heartwood of a tree?
old xylem that is no longer conducting water
In most plants, which organs are adapted to capture sunlight for photosynthesis?
leaves
In dicots, secondary growth
produces bark and wood.
Gas exchange occurs through the stomata because
of diffusion.
Living on land required that plants
conserve water.
During fungal reproduction, which of the following processes is first to occur after the nuclei of opposite mating types fuse in order to reduce the chromosome number back to normal for a fungus ?
meiosis
Which of the following are areas of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produces new cells that are ready for differentiation?
meristems
The number of seed leaves distinguishes
two groups of angiosperms.
Compare the prey catching (detecting, pursuing, and catching) tools of a jellyfish and a flatworm. Which is the better hunter? Justify your conclusion.
A jellyfish has nematocysts on the tentacles that allow it to "harpoon" prey items that contact it. To assist in moving prey to the tentacles, jellyfish swim using their muscles and nerve net to coordinate movement. This movement has the effect of pulling food particles toward the jellyfish tentacles. A flatworm on the other hand, has chemosensors that detect prey items, a brain to coordinate input from sensors and muscles and cilia to propel the flatworm toward prey. Once it has found the prey, the pharynx will move food into the gastrovascular cavity.
The flatworm would be the better hunter because it not only has effective tools to handle prey, but unlike the jellyfish, it can move toward prey. The jellyfish has to wait in hopes of encountering food items.
The structure responsible for moving water through a sponge is
choanocyte
Oxygen constantly diffuses from water into a flatworm's body. For this to happen, the concentration of oxygen in its body must be
lower than the concentration of oxygen in the water.
Which of the following is not a member of the phylum Platyhelminthes:
Ring worms
Of the following choices, the simplest form of nervous system is a
nerve net
Muscles work together with a support structure called a
skeleton
The Porifera, Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes are all assymetrical. (T or F)
False
The difference between a protostome and a deuterostome is that
the blastopore in a deuterostome develops into the animal's anus.
Muscle tissue exerts force by becoming
shorter
Which of the following is NOT true about flatworms?
They have a coelom
The body symmetry of a cnidarian is
radial in both the medusa and polyp stages.
A marine biologist discovers a new tiny aquatic invertebrate species that lacks gills.The most reasonable hypothesis would be that the animal gets oxygen through
diffusion across its skin.
Intracellular digestion occurs when food is digested
inside specilized cells
Which of the following animals has a body covering that allows for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
flatworms
Many flatworms can detect changes in the amount of light in their environment using groups of cells called
eyespots
Parthenogenesis is a method of reproduction in which
an egg develops without being fertilized by a sperm.
The hydrostatic skeleton of a cnidarian depends on which feature in order to support the animal?
gastrovascular cavity
Cnidarians evolved a truly unique capability that allowed them to capture prey and defend themselves called the:
nematocyst
Which of the following animals has an asymmetrical body plan?
sponge
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is
eukaryotic
Cattle depend on microorganisms in their digestive tract to digest the cellulose in their diets. The cattle and the microorganisms are
mutualistic symbionts.
An animal is each of the following EXCEPT
autotrophic
In free-living flatworms, what organ pumps food into the digestive cavity?
pharynx
When an animal's environment changes, sexual reproduction improves a species' ability to
adapt to new living conditions.
In sponges, fertilization occurs when
the sperm is taken in from the surrounding water.
Which of the following is not a member of the Cnidarians:
urchins
In an animal that is bilaterally symmetrical, which two halves mirror each other?
the left and right sides
Organisms that must obtain nutrients and energy by eating other organisms are
heterotrophic
A student looks at a slice of tissue on an unlabeled microscope slide. The student concludes the tissue is not from an animal because the cells in the tissue have
cell walls.
Which of the following are rod-like support structures in a sponge?
spicules
Animals have nervous systems that
gather information.
The notochord is responsible for which function in an embryo?
structural support
Synchronizing gamete (eggs and sperm) release during external fertilization increases the chance that
eggs will be fertilized.
Which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat?
a tail that extends beyond the anus
Which of the following best describes the feeding habits of sponges?
filter feeders
A gastrovascular cavity is the
body space in some invertebrates where digestive and circulatory functions occur.
The Porifera, Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes are all acoelomates.
True