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70 terms

Chapter 1: Computer Hardware

STUDY
PLAY
computer
a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions
computer input
whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system
data
symbols that represent facts, objacts, and ideas
processing
the way computers manipulate data
cental processing unit (CPU)
the component where most of the processig takes place or the "brain"`
computer program
the series of instructions that tell a computer how to carry out a processing task
software
the programs that form that sets up a computer to do a specific task
operating system
software that helps a computer control itself to operate efficiently and keep track of data
application software
helps users apply the computer to specific tasks, such as writing documetns and editing photos
memory
an area of a computer that temporarily hold data wairing to be processed, stored, or output
storage
the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immedately needed for processing
computer output
the result produced by a computer
handheld computer
features a small keyboard or touch-sensite screen and is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it
PDA
(personal digital system) is typicaly used as an electronic appointment book, adress book, calculator, and notepad
personal computer
designed to meed the computing needs of an individual
desktop computer
fits on a desk and runs on power from an electical wall outlet
notebook computer
a small lightweight personal computer that incorporates a secreen, a keyboard, sorage devices, and processing components into a single protable unit
netbook
small notebook computers
tablet computer
a protable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive scteen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad
server
to serve data to computers connected to a network
mainframe computer
a larfe and expensive coputer capable of si,ultaneous processing data for hundreds or thousands of users
supercomputer
one of the fastests computers in the world
computer network
designed to share hardware, data, and software
internet
the worlds largest network, connecting millions of personal computers, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers
centralized computing system
depends of a centally-located computer for processing and storage
distributed computer network
spreadsthe processing and storage tasks among many computers
personal computer systam
a desktop or notebook computer and al the input, output, and storage devices connected to it
system unit
the component that hold the computers curcit boards, CPU, power supply, memory, and storage devices
display device
most desktop computers have separate display device
keyboard
the primary input device
mouse/trackpad
an input device designed to manipulate on-screen grahical objects and contols
storage devices
a hard disk drive, and a a CD or DVD drive
USB ports
ports that make it east to plug in various devices, such as external hard disk drives and USB flash drives
memory card slots
used to transfer data from memory cards that contain data from digital cameras and other handheld devices
sound card and speakers
required for high-quality music, narration, and sound effects
webcam
built in camera that stores photos directly on the compuers hard disk
network circuity
connects a computer to a wired or wireless network
printer
an output device that produces compuer-genrated text or graphical images on paper
motherboard
a unit that contains stoarage devices, a power supply, and the computers main circuit board
intergrated circuit
a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with miroscopic eirucit elements such as wiresm transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors
microprocessor
and intergrated circuit designed to process instructions
digital device
works with discrete-distinct and seprate-data, such as the digits 1 and 0
analog device
works with continuouse data
ASCII
requires only seven bits for each character
Extended ASCII
uses eight bits to represent each character
EBCCIC
is another8-bit code used by older IMB mainframe computers
unicode
uses 16 buts and provides codes for 65,000 characters
byte
is composed of eight bits and it is abbreviated as an uppercase B
compatable computers
operate in esentially the same way
embedded microprocessors
designed for specialized tasks
ALU
performs arithmetic operation
control unit
directs microprocessor tasks
registers
holds data that is being processed
RAM
a temporary holding area for data, application program instuctions, and the operatinf system
volatile
requires electrical power to hold data
ROM
a type of memory curcuity that holds the computers startup routine
ROM BIOS
small set of instructions that tel the computer to to access the hard disk
hard disk drive
the main storage device in most computer systems
magnetic storage technology
mictoscopic paricles are magnetized to represent 0's and 1's
head crash
when a read-write head runs into a dust paricle or some other conaminant
optical drive
a small laser light to read data stored on plastic-coated cds, dvds, or blu-ray discs
`CD
provides 650-700 MB or storage space for computer data
DVD
a variation of cd technology with a capacity of 4.7 GB
Blu-ray disc
23 GB for a single layer or 50 GB for dual layers
optical storage technology
etches data onto the disc surface
USB flash drive
a popular removable portabel storage device featuring a built-in connector tha plugs directly into a computers usb drive
solid state storage technology
provides fast access to data and use very little power
surge strip
a row of outlets arranged in a plastic case
uninterruptible power supple
batter backup along witha surge protection
defragmentaion utility
helps your hard disk operate more efficiently