Chapter 29: Civil Rights
Terms in this set (47)
protected by federal laws that made it illegal to have segregation or discrimination in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. State and local Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences;
this was legal in the South and it was the
cause of protests by blacks 1954-1965
The practice of pursuing political or other goals through action, often including protests and demonstrations
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Interracial civil rights group used the courts (legal system) for political and social change
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court
overruled "separate but equal"doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson,
racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal
and ordered all
public schools desegregated.
NAACP lawyer made famous in the Brown v Board of Ed case; first black justice on the Supreme Court
of the United States.
the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races; opposite of segregation
Little Rock 9
1st group of
black students who were forcibly integrated at a white school
because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
1957 she was the
last black student to arrive the first day of school of the Little Rock Nine,
separated from the others. A state trooper refuse to let her in. She
faced an angry, racist mob when entering the school alone.
Refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger.
After she was jailed, the
Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery bus boycott
In Alabama 1955,
Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat
on a city bus,
Dr. Martin Luther King led a 365 day boycott
of city buses. The
ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal so bus segregation ended;
MLK rose in prominence
in the civil rights movement
Nonviolent protest against unjust laws (Thoreau, Gandhi, MLK); provoked violent white hatred, which was publicized---this gained sympathy for the cause nationally ex: sit-ins, Rosa Parks refusing to give up her seat for a white person
peaceful protest or noncooperation with authorities to achieve social or political goals; allows the protesters to take the moral high ground ex: Selma March, Montgomery bus boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. (MLK)
civil rights leader.
He opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations.
As whites victimized blacks, they won sympathy and support.
He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
I Have a Dream
This 1963 speech by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington focused on civil rights. "Let freedom ring" "Free at last"
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
founded by Martin Luther King Jr
. to fight against segregation using nonviolent means;
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organization founded in 1960 by
college students to utilize nonviolence and civil disobedience
and offer young people a voice in the movement;
became more radical under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
A leader of the Black Nationalist movement in 1966, he coined the phrase
"Black Power". Broke off from the nonviolent movements, where he started in SNCC
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served;
Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
1961 SNCC staged
public demonstrations on interstate buses
to test southern states' compliance to
Interstate Commerce Commission ruling and Supreme Court ban of segregation on interstate buses
Interstate Commerce Commission
an agency that
sets the laws for all the companies that do business across state lines; pressured by Freedom Rider activists to rule in 1961
that passengers were permitted to sit wherever they pleased on interstate buses and trains
The first African American student at the University of Mississippi
highly segregated Alabama City in 1963 whose
police led by Bull Connor met civil rights protestors, including children, with police dogs and fire hoses.
Brought national attention to the movement and forced the Federal government to respond.
Letter From a Birmingham Jail
written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march
against segregation. He was r
esponding to criticism of his nonviolence
March on Washington
held in 1963 to urge passing the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
James Earl Ray
Assassinated Martin Luther King in Memphis, Tennessee
Voter registration effort in rural Mississippi organized by black and white civil rights workers in 1964
Voting Rights Act 1965
A civil rights law that eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people.
de jure segregation (de jure=of law)
Racial segregation that is required by law (segregated schools and public facilities); civil rights movement ended this
de facto segregation
racial separation established by practice and custom, not by law; this still exists in the US
Racist governor of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); ran for president in 1968
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs but faced discrimination and de facto segregation.
The abandonment of cities by affluent or middle-class white residents. It resulted in less tax revenues in cities and thus inner-city decay. Improved with Urban revitalization
Summer of 1966 and 1967: Marked the end of the nonviolent protest and a movement towards violence.The cause in Watts was due to black anger over police brutality.
federal investigation of urban riots; concluded in late 1968 that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming "two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"
war on poverty
President Johnson's programs aimed at aiding the country's poor through education, job training, proper health care, and nutrition
Spurred by Malcolm X and other black leaders, a call for black pride and advancement without the help of whites; this appeared to be a repudiation of the calls for peaceful integration urged by MLK.
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
Nation of Islam
A group of
militant Black Americans
who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans;
associated with Malcolm X until his philosophy began to change
black separatist organization that believed a militant response to white oppression and police brutality was necessary, including use of violence
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
tortured and murdered in Mississippi for talking to a white woman; Black witness Mose Wright bravely testified against the white defendants,
a very dangerous move.
Till's mother had an open coffin at his funeral and allowed pictures of his body to be published in magazines to bring national attention to the criminal repression and murder of blacks in the South
A policy that seeks to
correct the effects of past discrimination
by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged--
accept and hire applicants giving preference to minorities
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed all discriminatory laws nationwide; President Johnson pushed Congress to pass it as a legacy of President Kennedy and signed it into law
Civil Rights Act of 1968
made discrimination of employment or housing illegal
MLK organized this march in Alabama to press for the right of blacks to register to vote. Selma police brutally attacked the demonstrators. Two northern white marchers were murdered, and national outrage helped LBJ pass the Civil Rights Act of 1965.
Georgia Congressman who was a young civil rights activist in SNCC; he participated in the March on Washington, Freedom Riders, and the Selma March (where his skull was fractured as police beat the protesters)
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Chapter 18 The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement - Lalagos
The Civil Rights Movement Unit (Ch. 28 & 29)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
50 States Diagram
Silent 'e' Practice, vowel combinations
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 30: The Vietnam War Years
Chapter 31: An Era of Social Change
Chapter 33: The Conservative Tide
Civil Rights: Chapter 29