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74 terms

AP Psychology Midterm Review

All of the chapters expect Chapter 2.
STUDY
PLAY
Chapter 1: A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)
operational definition
Chapter 1: Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?
replication
Chapter 1: To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiz carefully observed an recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among boys and girl in the school yard. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?
naturalistic observation
Chapter 1: To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?
the case study
Chapter 1: A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which research method?
survey
Chapter 1: Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy". These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
wording effects
Chapter 1: The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)
population
Chapter 1: Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?
random sampling
Chapter 1: A correlation coefficient is a measure of the
direction and strength of the relationship between two variables
Chapter 1: To geographically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a
scatterplot
Chapter 1: If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are
positively correlated
Chapter 1: If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children
Chapter 1: Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
-0.67
Chapter 1: Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
-0.12
Chapter 1: A moderate positive correlation has been found between a person's weight and hours of television watched per week. Which of the following scatterplots best shows this relationship?
The answer is A: 1. Drawing from www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc
Chapter 1: Which of the following scatterplots represents the strongest relationship?
The answer is E: 3. Drawing from www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc
Chapter 1: Which of the following statements is most correct about the relationship between correlation and causation?
Correlation indicates the possibility of a casual relationship, but it does not prove causation.
Chapter 1: A researcher interested in proving a casual relationship between two variables should choose which research method?
experiment
Chapter 1: Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between
causes and effects
Chapter 1: To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
random assignment
Chapter 1: Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
the double-blind procedure
Chapter 1: In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a(n)
placebo
Chapter 1: To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effect of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a
control condition
Chapter 1: Which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that nay outcome differences between the experimental and control conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in research participants?
random assignment
Chapter 1: Which of the following is true for those assigned to the experimental group in an experiment?
The experimental group receives the experimental treatment
Chapter 1: Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
The experimental treatment is absent.
Chapter 1: In the hypothesis "Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep," what is the independent variable?
time of day
Chapter 1: In the hypothesis "Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep," what is the dependent variable?
number of terms remembered
Chapter 1:In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is
$10,000
Chapter 1: During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was
9
Chapter 1: Mr. and Mrs. Berry have five children ages 2,3,7,9, and 9. The median age of the berry children is
7
Chapter 1: If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?
68
Chapter 1: A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?
debriefing
Chapter 1: The American Psychological Association have developed ethical principles urging investigators to
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed
Chapter 1: Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing
Chapter 1: A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?
informed consent
Chapter 1: A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without obtaining their permission violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?
confidentiality
Chapter 1: The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)
psychiatrist
Chapter 1: The first psychological laboratory was established by
Wilhelm Wundt
Chapter 1: Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders
Chapter 3: Social learning theorists emphasize that:
observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
Chapter 3: Two individuals are most likely to share similar personality traits if they are _____ twins who were reared _____.
identical; together
Chapter 3: Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it:
inhibits progressive efforts to change common social practices
Chapter 3: Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by _____ than by _____.
genes; home environment
Chapter 3: Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called:
gender roles
Chapter 3: Exceptionally timid and cautious infants tend to become shy and unassertive adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of:
temperament
Chapter 3: Heritability refers to the extent to which:
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations
Chapter 3: Gender identity refers to:
the sense of being male or female
Chapter 3: The acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine traits and interest is called:
gender-typing
Chapter 3: Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar:
temperaments
Chapter 3: Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:
synapses
Chapter 3: A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender:
identity
Chapter 3: A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child's:
neural connections
Chapter 3: Identical twins originate from the fertilization of _____ egg cell(s) by _____ sperm cells(s).
a single; a single
Chapter 3: An infant's temperament refers most directly to its:
emotional excitability
Chapter 3: When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has leaned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of:
gender roles
Chapter 3: The heritability of intelligence refers to the extent to which:
the variation among people's intelligence can be attributed to their genetic differences
Chapter 3: Gender role refers to:
the set of expected behaviors for males and females
Chapter 3: Personal space refers to:
the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people
Chapter 3: The enduring traditions, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next define their:
culture
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