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124 terms

Science Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
mitochondria
they convert food to energy
endoplasmic reticulum
carries proteins and minerals
ribosomes
make the proteins the ER carries
golgi bodies
recieves, package, and distribute proteins among the cells
choroplasts
captures energy from the sun
vacuoles
storage areas for the proteins
lysosomes
break down certain materials
organelles
have special jobs
cytoplasm
surrounded by cell membrane has hereditary material
nucleus
directs cells functions
nucleolus
inside the nucleus; builds proteins
cell wall
ONLY in plant cell and bacteria; outer protective layer
cell membrane
outer layer of cell; controls what goes in and out;
cytoplasm
gel-like mixture surrounded by cell membrane; contains hereditary material
vacuole
membrane bound sac for storage, digestion and waste removal; contains water solution and helps plants maintain shape
nucleus
directs cells functions; like a brain; contains DNA
nucleolus
inside the nucleus; contains RNA to build proteins
mitochondria
produces energy through chemical reaction (breaking down fats and carbohydrates); controls level of water in other cell materials
rough ER
moves material around in cell; has ribosomes embedded in the surface
cell membrane
outer layer of cell; controls what goes in and out; double layer
ribosomes
1000s in every cell on ER and floating through; used to make proteins for cell
lysosomes
break down foods
golgi bodies
Recieve, package, and distribute proteins and other minerals among the cells
cell wall
ONLY in plant cell and bacteria; outer protective layer
chloroplast
usually found in plant cells; contains green chlorophyll; where photosynthesis happens
cell
the smallest unit that is capable of performing life function
environment
includes all living and nonliving things around you
social environment
family, neighbors, educational opportunities; job opportunities
cultural background
the beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people
evaluate
determine the quality of
risk
the chance that something harmful may happen to your health and wellness
consequences
results of actions
benefits
positive things
cumulative risk
when one risk factor adds to another to increase danger
prevention
taking steps to avoid something
abstinence
the conscious, active choice not to participate in high risk behaviors; choosing not to smoke; stay away from alcohol and illegal drugs
technology
how people change the world around them to meet their needs and solve practical problems
goal of technology
improve the way people live
engineer
A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
society
a group of people who live together in an area and have certain things in common
science vs technology
science is the study of the natural world to understand how it functions. Technology, on the other hand, changes, or modifies, the natural world to meet human needs or solve problems
scientific inquiry
The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
variables
factors that can change in an experiment
controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
manipulated variable
the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis
responding variable
the factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable
operational definition
a statement that describes how to measure a variable or define a term
data
facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations
conclusion
A summary of what you have learned from an experiment.
communicating
The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
scientist attitudes
curious, honesty, open, skepticism, and creative.
science
is a way of learning about the natural world
scientist
use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying and making models to learn more about the world
observing
using one or more of your senses to gather information
Quantitative observations
Observations that deal with a number or amount
Qualitative observation
observations that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers
inferring
when you explain or interpret the things you observe
predicting
making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence
classifying
The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way
making models
creating representations of complex objects or processes
life science
is the study of living things
Stereo Head
Two eyepieces, looking through them is like looking through a pair of binoculars, with similar controls for eyestrength correction and interpupilary distance setting
Eyepiece
The part of the microscope you look through. Has a 10x magnification level
Eyepiece diopter setting
Compensates for focusing differences between your eyes, it is very important because it helps prevent eye strain
Focus Knob
Moves the head of the microscope up and down to bring the objectly sharply into view. Most stereo micrsopes have only one focus knob
lighting
Top lighting shines down and reflects off the opaque or solid specimens; bottom lighting shines up through transparent objects.
Rack and Pinion
Most stero and dissecting microscopes have standard "Rack and Pinion" focusing. Turn a knob to slide the head of the micrscope up and down ( closer or farther from the specimen
Stage clips
For holding microscope slides or other thin objects in place on the stage
Stage Plate
When the specimen is placed for viewing; located directly under the objective lens. Some Stero microscopes have reversible black and white sides to provide appropriate contrast with the item being viewed
classification
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
taxonomy
the scientific study of how living things are classified
binomial nomenclature
the system for naming organisms in which each organism is given a unique, two-part scientific name indicating its genus and species
genus
a classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related organisms
species
A group of organisms that are physically similar and can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce
Carolus Linneaus
A Swedish Naturalist who made a system of naming things, called binomial nomenclature
prokaryote
an organism whose cells lack a nucleus and some other cell structures
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei. Scientists classify organism in the domain Eukarya into one of four kingdoms protists, fungi, plants, or animals
nucleus
the control center of a eukaryotic cell that directs the cell's activities and contains the information that determines the cell's form and function
protist
a eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus
fungi
a euraryotic organism that has cell walls, uses spores to reproduce, and is a heterotroph that feeds by absorbing food
plant
multicellular eukaryotes that are autotrophs and feed nearly all the heterotrophs on land
Cell
the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
Unicellular
single-celled organisms
Multicellular
organisms that are composed of many cells that are specialized to do a certain task
Stimulus
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
Response
an action or change in behavior
Development
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
Spontaneous generation
the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources
Autotrophs
Organisms that make their own food
Heterotrophs
Organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on others
Homeostasis
The maintenance of stable internal conditions
organism
Any living thing
characteristics of living things
All livings things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, respond to their surroundings, grow and develop, and reproduce
Growth
is the process of becoming larger
reproduction
the production of new offspring that are similar to the parents
chemical of life
the cells of all living things are composed of chemicals. the most abundant chemicals in cells is water. They have other chemicals called carbohydrates are a cell's main energy source. Two other chemicals protein, and lipids, are the building material of cells
Nucleic acid
are the genetic material - the chemical instructions that direct the cells activities
technology
how people change the world around them to meet their needs and solve practical problems
goal of technology
improve the way people live
engineer
A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
society
a group of people who live together in an area and have certain things in common
comparing technology and science
science is the study of the natural world to understand how it functions. Technology, on the other hand, changes, or modifies, the natural world to meet human needs or solve problems
scientific inquiry
The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
variables
factors that can change in an experiment
controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
manipulated variable
the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis
responding variable
the factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable
operational definition
a statement that describes how to measure a variable or define a term
data
facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations
conclusion
A summary of what you have learned from an experiment.
communicating
The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
scientist attitudes
curious, honesty, open, skepticism, and creative.
science
is a way of learning about the natural world
scientist
use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying and making models to learn more about the world
observing
using one or more of your senses to gather information
Quantitative observations
Observations that deal with a number or amount
Qualitative observation
observations that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers
inferring
when you explain or interpret the things you observe
predicting
making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence
classifying
The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way
making models
creating representations of complex objects or processes
life science
is the study of living things