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107 terms

Psychology Final

STUDY
PLAY
basic research
pure science to increase knowledge base
applied research
scientific study to solve practical problem
clinical psychology
branch of psychology that assesses and treats people with PDs
psychiatry
branch of medicine dealing with PDs
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning at outcome, that we would have foreseen it
hypothesis
testable prediction
replication
repeating essence of a study
case study
observation technique where one person is studied in depth
survey
technique for determining self-reported attitudes of a group
experiment
research method in which an investigator manipulates independent variables to observe effect on some dependent variable
control group
group not exposed to treatment
random sample
fairly represents a population
independent variable
manipulated experimental factor
dependent variable
outcome factor
placebo effect
results caused by expectations alone
double-blind
procedure in which participants and administrators are ignorant
mean
arithmetic average of scores
median
middle score (half above, half below)
mode
most frequently occurring score
standard deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
neuron
nerve cell
dendrite
branching neuron extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body
axon
neuron extension that passes messages through its fibers to form junctions with neurons, muscles, glands
myelin sheath
covers axon to speed neural impulses
threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse
synapse
junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite of receiving
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps
CNS
brain and spinal cord
PNS
sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to rest of body
sensory neurons
carry incoming information from receptors to CNS
motor neurons
carry outgoing information from CNS to muscles and glands
sympathetic nervous system
division of ANS that arouses
parasympathetic nervous system
division of ANS that calms
brainstem
oldest part, survival functions
medulla
heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
nerve network, controls arousal
thalamus
sensory switchboard
cerebellum
voluntary movement and balance (little brain)
limbic system
emotions and drives
amygdala
linked to emotion
hypothalamus
maintenance activities, governs endocrine system
cerebral cortex
ultimate control and processing center
frontal (lobe)
speaking, movements, plans, judgements
parietal (lobes)
touch and body position
occipital (lobes)
visual
temporal (lobes)
auditory
Broca's area
controls language expression, muscle movements for speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception, comprehension
corpus callosum
axons fibers connecting brain hemispheres
plasticity
brain ability to change
perception
organizing and interpreting sensory information
sensation
receiving stimuli
absolute threshold
minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus half the time
difference threshold
minimum difference between two stimuli needed for detection half the time
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation
figure-ground
organization of visual field into objects
closure
fill gaps to create complete object
depth perception
ability to see in 3D, allows distance judgment
monocular cues
depth cues available to a single eye (e.g. interposition)
binocular cues
depth cues available only to both eyes together (e.g. retinal disparity)
psychokinesis
mind over matter
telepathy
mind to mind communication
clairvoyance
perceiving remote events
precognition
perceiving future events
classical conditioning
type of learning in which one links stimuli to anticipate events
acquisition
in CC, the initial stage where one links NS and US; in OC, strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction
diminishing of CR
generalization
tendency for similar stimuli to elicit similar response
discrimination
ability to distinguish between CS and irrelevant stimuli
operant conditioning
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened or weakened with reinforcement or punishment
Skinner box
operant chamber, animal presses bar to get food
shaping
reinforcing behaviors closer and closer to those desired
reinforcer
increases behavior it follows
primary reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus
secondary reinforcer
stimulus that gains power through association with primary reinforcer
fixed-ratio
reinforcement after specific number of responses
variable-ratio
reinforcement after unpredictable number of reponses
fixed-interval
reinforcement after specific time
variable-interval
reinforcement after unpredictable time
punishment
decreases behavior it follows
modeling
observing and imitating specific behavior
Watson
believed human emotions and behaviors are all conditioned responses
amnesia
loss of memory
flashbulb memory
clear memory of emotionally significant event
encoding
processing information into memory
storage
retention of encoded information
retrieval
getting information out of storage
long-term memory
relatively permanent and limitless, includes knowledge, skills, experiences
short-term memory
holds few items briefly (e.g. phone number)
rehearsal
conscious repetition
spacing effect
distributed study yields better retention
serial position effect
tendency to recall best the first and last items in list
imagery
mental pictures
mnemonics
memory aids, especially using imagery and organizational devices
chunking
organizing items into manageable units, often automatic
sensory memory
immediate, very brief recording of sensory information
iconic memory
momentary visual memory
echoic memory
momentary auditory memory
proactive interference
prior learning disrupts recall of new information
retroactive interference
new learning disrupts recall of old information
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, dysfunctional
fundamental attribution error
tendency to underestimate circumstance and overestimate disposition
central (route to) persuasion
focus on arguments
peripheral (route to) persuasion
focus on incidental cues
conformity
adjusting behavior to coincide with group standard, unspoken pressure
obedience
following direct orders
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and restraint in groups that fosters arousal and anonymity