100 terms

AP World History Unit 1

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Sumer
Sumer was the first known civilization which existed in the southern half of mesopatamia
Semitic Migrants
People of Semitic families who spoke semitic languages such as Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician.
Sumerian City-States
Sumer's cities which became states to prevent conflicts and and oversee and control their agriculture
Sargon of Akkad
The creator of empire in Mesopatamia. ( a city near Kish and Babylon)
Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire
King of the Babylonian Empire (1792-1750 B.C.E.) who further organized their government by implementing laws and taxes
Hammurabi's Laws
A complete set of laws compiled from those of previous rulers that was implemented during Hammurabi's reign
The Assyrian Empire
The empire proceeding the Babylonian Empire which was in northern Mesopotamia that used newly invented iron weapons
Nebuchadnezzar and the New Babylonian Empire
Next king of the Babylonian Empire who lavished wealth in his capital city
Bronze Metallurgy
An advancement of metalworking by Mesopotamian metalworkers in order to create stronger tools and weapons (400 B.C.E.)
Iron Metallurgy
The further advancement of metalworking by creating stronger tools using iron
The Wheel
This invention brought the advancement of transportation on land
Shipbuilding
This technology/craft improved marine transportation to increase long distance trade
Trade Networks
Routes, at the time usually traveled by donkey caravan used to trade items or send messages over long or even short, local distances
Social Classes
This was primarily developed based on one's wealth even in the neolithic time period
Temple Communities
These were inhabited by priests and priestesses who received offerings such as food, drinks, and clothing for their interaction with the gods and goddesses
Slaves
These were mainly prisoners of war, men or women who were in debt and criminals. They mostly served as house servants but some worked in fields and temple communities
Patriarchal Society
Because of this most men in Mesopotamia ruled above all women. They were in charge of all important matters and were always in charge of their family
Women's Roles
Although they weren't stripped entirely of all power, women still served important roles in their society such as advising kings becoming priestesses, working as scribes but very rarely having great power
Cuneiform Writing
A a picture based writing system
Education
Unlike today education in Mesopotamia was based on a specific craft the individual wanted to pursue such as architecture. The system was almost entirely vocal and had little written instruction
Astronomy and Mathematics
This helped create accurate calendars and improve agricultural cylcles
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Literature of Mesopotamia about a greedy king and a companion
The Early Hebrews
Hebrew nomads who inhabited land between Mesopotamia and egypt
Migrations and Settlement in Palestine
Some Hebrews emigrated from Palestine into Egypt around 1800 B.C.E. At around 1300 B.C.E. the ones who moved back were know as Israelite
Moses and Monotheism
Moses believed that there was only one god named Yaweh and all other gods were just figments of their imaginations
Assyrian and Babylonian Conquests
A series of conquest where the Assyrians and Babylonians juggle for power
The Early Jewish Community
A a group of small states proceeding the conquest of the Babylonian empire
The Early Phoenicians
Existed solely as small city-states along the Mediterranean coast
Phoenician Trade Networks
At the time trade was primarily what they were known for. Early on they traded with neighbors through land but then added maritime trading to their main sources of income and fuel of their economy
Alphabetic Writing
The Phoenicians developed a 22 character based alphabetic system that made written communication much easier compared with cuneiform writing
Indo-European Languages
Many languages that contain various similarities in vocabulary and grammatical structure.
The Indo-European Homeland
A region located in modern day Ukraine and South Russia. It was home to the beginning of the Indo-European languages
Horses
Were first used as a source of food but after domesticated they were used for riding/travel
The Nature of Indo-European Migrations
The Indo-Europeans expanded very far out throughout the continent with the help of horses allowing quick transportation and diffusion of culture
The Hittites
A group of ancient Indo-Europeans who took over Anatolia
War Chariots
A technological advancement to make battle easier
Iron Metallurgy
The refinement of metalworking by the hitittes
Indo-European Migrations to the East
Migrations of indo european speakers to the east
Indo-European Migrations to the West
Migrations of indo european speakers to the south
Indo-European Migrations to the South
Migrations of indo european speakers to the east
Early Sudanic Agriculture
Consisted of cattle, sorghum , yams, goats and sheep
Climatic Change
A fluctuation of climate in northern Africa. (became much hotter)
The Nile River Valley
A river that runs through East Africa that has served greatly in the development of several cultures and the trade of goods
Early Agriculture in the Nile Valley
Crops in the Nile Valley mostly consisted of grains and animals included donkeys and cattle
Political Organization
This served as a very important structure for the development and support for the large society that existed at the time
Menes
An Egyptian conqueror/ruler
The Archaic Period and the Old Kingdom
The archaic period existed between (3100-2660 B.C.E.) and the Old Kingdom existed between (2660-2160 B.C.E.)
Relations between Egypt and Nubia
A competitive relationship between two empires one north and one south of each other, fighting for resources and control of the Nile river
The Early Kingdom of Kush
A powerful African kingdom south of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom
A.K.A. the Period of Reunification
The period in the history of ancient Egypt between 2000 B.C.E. and 1700 B.C.E.
The Hyhsos
"Foreign Rulers"
•Little information left
•Horse Riding nomads
•Military advantage over Egyptians from horse drawn chariots
The New Kingdom
•Prosperous and productive society
•Agriculture surpluses supported a population of 4 million
•Divided responsibilities and offices
Egyptian Imperialism
After expelling the hyhsos, Egyptians sought to prevent new invasions by seizing control of the regions that pose threats in the future
The Revived Kingdom of Kush
After expelling the Hyhsos, Egyptians sought to prevent new invasions by seizing control of regions that pose threats in the future
Cities of the Nile Valley
In the Nile Valley, popultation clustered mostly in agricultural villages to trade with neighbors up and down the river. Cities emerged
Social Classes
Ancient cities were center of wealth, made the development of social distinctions. Anyone could attain high positions
Patriarchal Society
Vested authority over public and private affairs in their men
Bronze Metallurgy
Hyhsos relied on bronze weapons to impose their authority on the Nile Delta
Iron Metallurgy
Southern Nile societies mad up for their lack of bronze with the large scale production of iron
Transportation
Current take boats upper to lower Egypt on the Nile, while the winds can take boats from lower to upper Egypt
Trade Networks
Efficient Transport = long distance trade
Hieroglyphic Writing
Egyptians supplemented pictographs with symbols representing sounds and ideas
Education
Formal education & literacy brought handsome rewards in ancient Egypt
Meroitic Writing
Nubian borrowed Egyptian hieroglyphs but usd them to rep. sounds
Amon and Re
Amon- associated with sun, creation, fertility, repoduce forces

Re- sun god worshipped at Heliopolis
Aten and Monotheism
Aten was the preferred monotheistic god by the Pharoh Amenhtep IV
Mummification
The yearning for immortality explains the Egytian practice of mummifying the dead
Cult f Osiris
According to myths, Osiris' evil brother Seth murdered him and scattered his dismembered parts throughout the land but the victim's loyal wife, Isis , retrieved his parts and gave him a proper burial. Impressed by her devotion, the gods restored Osiris to life, but to an existence as god of the underworld.
Nubian Religious Beliefs
Very little written infromation survives.
Lion- god apedemak- served as god of war for the kingdom of kush
The Bantu
Among the most influential people of Saharan Africa in ancient time were those who spoke Bantu languages
Bantu Migrations
By 3000 B.C.E. they were slowly spreading south into the west African forest, and after 2000 B.C.E. the expanded rapidly to the south toward the Congo River Basin and East toward the Great Lakes
Iron and Migration
After about 1000 B.C.E., the pace of Bantu migrations quickened, as Bantu people began to produce iron tools weapons
Spread of Agriculture
Between 1000 and 500 B.C.E., cultivators extended the cultivation of yams and grains deep into east and south aftica
Religious Beliefs
Monotheistic by 5000 B.C.E. Divine force good & evil spirits Nyamba "God"
The Indus River
Water form rain & melted snow carried silt unpredictable agriculture suppliment to the harrapan society
Political Organization
There is little to no evidence left of political structure in in Harrapa
Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro
Two main cities in the Harrapan societies that were well structured
Specialized Labor & Trade
Agriculture economy traded domestic and foreign pottery, tools, decorations, god,silver, copper traded by ships
Social Distinctions
Social distinctions rather than being based on roles wear based on wealth
Fertility Cults
Had a strong concern for fertility in women. They honored a fertility goddess
Harappan Decline
After 1900 B.C.E. ecological Degradation deforestation erosion, less rain and other environmental issues
The Early Aryans
The Aryans strayed from an agricultural society and used horses and other pastoral animals as transportations
The Vedas
Numerous Poems collection of religious works that spoke of the Aryan gods
Vedic Age
Mainly a term that identifies a time period where Aryans were in conflict with many indigenous Indian societies
Aryan Migrations in India
During the early centuries of the Vedic age, Aryan groups settled in punjab
Changing Political Organization
As the Aryans settled into permanent communities and began to rely more on agriculture than herding, they evolved more formal political institutions
Caste & Varna
Caste identities developed gradually as the Aryans established settlements throughout India. Varna means color to refer to the major social classes
Social Distinctions in the Late Vedic Age
The 4 main varnas are priests, warriors, artisans and merchants, landless peasants and serfs
Subcastes and Jati
The subcastes that you are put in depending on your occupation.
Caste and Social Mobility
The social mobility in the caste system means that it is flexible
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Lawbook of Manu
Proper moral behavior social relationships sex and gender relationships
Sati
Practice where a widow sacrifices herself to her dead husband to join him in the afterlife
Aryan Gods
Many gods for different natural environmental factors such as fire, dawn, the sky and the sun
Ritual Sacrifices
Minor aspect of religion when people killed animals for their gods.
Spirituality
Aryans believed in the world, gods, and human beings. They were deep rooted in faith and sought to teach others
The Upanshads
Means "Sitting in front of" and is when disciples discuss religious and sacred problems
Brahman, The Universal Soul
Foundation for all things that exist
Teachings of Upanishads
Souls temporarily go to heaven and are then reincarnated
Religion and Vedic Society
Just as Brahman theories about the origins of varna distinctions reflected Aryan society about 1000 B.C.E.
The Yellow River
The Yellow River is a river that begins in east china that carries yellow silt. It has been a very influential river in the development of Chinese dynasties and civilizations.