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anatomy and physiology week 5
Terms in this set (64)
Infectious organisms play a part in at least half of all human illness.
disorders that breakdown tissues in the body.
Causes include: hereditary factors, substance abuse, infection or normal "wear and tear" and idiopathic
includes either a dietary lack of nutrients or an excess of any type
include any disruption of the reactions involved in cellular metabolism. Hereditary errors of metabolism result from genetic changes that affect enzymes.
deficiencies in the immune system, caused by either infection or hereditary factors.
refers to cancer and other types of tumours.
disorders of the brain and nervous system.
diseases of unknown origin
diseases due to adverse treatment effects
Cause or theory behind the illness
science of diseases in populations.
Diseases are often classified on severity
Chronic: less severe/long
Subacute: between both
Can be transmitted from one person to another.
Many people affected in a given region.
Disease found to a lesser extent but continuously.
Prevalent throughout an entire country.
uses the term morbidity rate to describe the proportion of people with a specific disease in a given population per unit of time and mortality rate
Describes the percentage of the population that dies from a given disease within a period of time.
Diagnosis （ Steps in Treatment）
A conclusion as to the nature of the disease. This is done by looking at the symptoms and signs.
the conditions of the disease, as noted by patient.
Subjective feelings, such as pain.
Evidence of disease observed by the doctor or other healthcare professionals.
Objective indicators of the disease that are obvious to someone other than the patient, such as fever, rapid pulse.
Treatment （ Steps in Treatment）
Doctor prescribes therapy, a course of treatment
describe the potential unwanted out comes of the primary condition, such as paralysis following recovery from a stroke.
Syndrome （ Steps in Treatment）
A characteristic group of symptoms and signs accompany each disease.
Prognosis （ Steps in Treatment）
Prediction of the probable outcome based on the condition of the patient and the doctor's knowledge.
Naturopathy物理疗法（ Complementary & Alternative Medicine）
a philosophy of helping people heal themselves by developing healthy lifestyles
Chiropractic按摩疗法 （ Complementary & Alternative Medicine）
stresses manipulation to correct misalignment for treatment of musculoskeletal disorder
Acupuncture针灸 （ Complementary & Alternative Medicine）
Insert thin needles into the body a specific points to relieve pain and promote healing
Herbal remedies （ Complementary & Alternative Medicine）
plant derived remedies
Promotion of health
Decreasing alcohol intake
Microorganism: (tiny living thing)
systemic or local
an insect or other animal that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another.
Direct vs Indirect
Portal of Entry/Exit
An initial latent or 'silent' stage
no clinical signs are evident, this characterizes some diseases. This stage may be referred to as the incubation period, the time between exposure to the microorganism and the onset of the signs or symptoms.
comprises the time in the early development of a disease when one is aware of a change in the body, but the signs are nonspecific-for example, fatigue, loss of appetite, or headache
manifestations of a disease
the clinical evidence or effects, the signs and symptoms, of disease
the manifestations of the disease subside
signs increase (eg. Rhematoid arthritis)
is a condition that triggers an acute episode.
Seizures in an individual with a seizure disorder.
is the period of recovery and return to the normal healthy state; it may last for several days or months.
is the term used to describe a specific local change in the tissues.
May be microscopic or highly visible (liver vs. pimple)
In pairs = diplococi (gonorrhea)
Chains = streptococci
Clusters = staphylococci
straight thin rods, form endospores
Vibrios (slightly curved)
Spirochetes (spirals, but can twist around)
Large group of plant-like organisms
Only a few are pathogenic
Larger and more complicated than bacteria
Grow best in dark, damp places
Reproduces by cell division or by the production of spores
Yeasts: single cell forms/molds are the "furry ones"
Diseases caused by fungi
eg : athletes foot and ringworm.
Fungi cause very few systemic diseases, however some
diseases they cause are very dangerous and difficult to
Very tiny microorganisms
Smallest known infectious agents
They are not cellular and have no enzyme system
Viruses are not susceptible to antibiotics
Viruses can only grow inside of living cells.
Nucleic acid core (DNA/RNA)
Classified according to the diseases they cause
Named according to either :
Amoebas: irregular mass of cytoplasm that propels itself by extending part of its cell and then flowing into the extension.
Ciliates: protozoa is covered with tiny hairs called cilia.
Flagellates: long whip like filaments called flagella propel these organisms. (Giardia)
Apicomplexans/Sporozoa: cannot propel themselves.
Unable to grow without a host.
Infective Proteins - Prions
Infectious particles composed solely of protein.
They are slow growing and hard to destroy, producing spongy degeneration of brain tissue.
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease
Parasitic worms: Helminths
Intestinal Roundworms, Pinworms, Filaria worm, Hookworms, Flatworms
tends to infest the lungs or the intestines.
Long, white-yellow pointed at both ends.
May produce intestinal obstruction in large numbers. Eggs deposited in feces in the soil. Eggs hard to kill. Reaches host by contaminated food trichinosis
hard to control and eliminate. They live in the large intestine. Female moves outside the anus to lay thousands of eggs
spread by biting insects. If they clog the lymphatic vessels it is called elephantiasis象皮病
parasites that live in the small intestine.
They suck blood from the host causing anemia.
Contaminated soil with (feces and eggs) larvae that can enter through intact skin.
spread by improperly cooked meats.
Tape worms 1.5-15 meters
Asepsis, Sterilization, Disinfection
a condition in which no pathogens are present.
Bactericide and germicide.
any process in which pathogens are not necessarily killed but are prevented from multiplying (bacteriostasis).
Antiseptics are less powerful than disinfectants and are safe to use on living tissues.
special measures to prevent the spread of infection. Standard precautions are applied to all situations involving body fluids.
Stains are coloured dyes added to a specimen to identify the types of bacteria
bluish purple dye (crystal violet), is added, then a weak solution of iodine.
The colour remains the same.
the colour can be removed.
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