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AP Psychology

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The seventeenth century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience
Locke
The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of different levels of analysis in exploring ________ and _____________
behavior, mental processes
the psychological perspective that places the most emphasis on how observable responses are learned is the _________ perspective
behavioral
A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology's knowledge base is engaged in:
basic research
the first psychology laboratory was established by _______ in the year ______.
Wundt 1879
Today, psychology is a discipline that does/does not connect with a diversity of other fields?
does
Today, psychology is defined as ____________________
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The psychological views of William James are to those of Edward Titchener as _________ is to ___________
functionalism, structuralism
Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that his market savvy would allow him to pick stock that would make him a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates:
overconfidence
The scientific attitude of ________ is based on the belief that ideas need to be tested against observable evidence
skepticism
True or false: Animals are used in psychological research more often than they are killed by humane animal shelters
false
True or false: No psychological theory can be considered a good one until it produces testable predictions
True
Events seem more predictable after they have occurred is an example of _____________
the hindsight bias
True or false: Psychologists' personal values can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
true
To ensure that other researchers can repeat their work, psychologists use:
operational definitions
Well-done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset, or ________, of an entire group, or ________.
random sample; population
The four families on your block all have annual household incomes of 25,000. If a new family with an annual income of 75,000 moved in, which measure of central tendency would be most affected?
mean
If shoe size and IQ are negatively correlated, then people with _____ feet have high IQ's
small
What is the mode of the following distribution: 5, 6, 2, 0, 8, 9, 6, 4, 1, 0, 6,
6
In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of people is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the _________.
control group
To prevent the possibility that a placebo effect or researchers' expectation will influence a study's results, scientists employ __________
double blind procedure
Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. How is this flawed?
the sample is not representative of the population of interest
Bob scored 43 out of 70 points on his psychology exam. He was worried until he discovered that most of the class earned the same score. Bobs score was equal to the:
mode
When a difference b/t two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:
the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
Know how to find the mean of a set of numbers
ok
Rashad, who is participating in a psychology experiment on the effects of alcohol on perception, is truthfully told by the experimenter that he has been assigned to the "high dose condition." With Rashad and the experimenter's knowing this,_________ and _________ will be affected.
Rashad's performance, the experimenter's interpretation
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are _________ that are released by the ________ gland
hormones, adrenal
The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that under the influence of heroin the brain increases/ceases production of ________.
ceases, endorphins.
The neurotransmitter ACh is most likely to be found at _________ and ________
motor neurons, muscle fibers
What's the major problem with phrenology?
The brain is not neatly organized into structures that correspond to our categories of behavior
When Sandy scalded her toe in a tub of hot water, the pain message was carried to her spinal cord by the _______ nervous system
somatic
A strong stimulus can increase the:
number of times the neuron fires
Der. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely describe herself as a _________ psychologist.
biological
The myelin sheath that is on some neurons ____________.
increases the speed of neural transmission
A neuron will generate action potentials more often when it receive more ________ than ________ inputs
excitatory, inhibitory
Put the following in the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse: axon, cell body, dendrite, and synapse?
dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse
What disease involves the death of nerve cells that produce a vital neurotransmitter?
Parkinson's
Research has found that the amount of representation in the motor cortex reflects the ______________
degree of precise control required by each part.
Most complex activities emerge from the activity of just the right/ just the left/ both hemispheres in the brain.
both
Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory, motor, or language functions are called __________
association areas
The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split brain patients form a structure called the:
corpus callosum
Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the:
limbic system
Following a head injury, a person has ongoing difficulties staying awake(arousal), Most likely, the damage occurred to the:
reticular formation
Beginning at the front of the brain and moving toward the back of the head, then down the skull and back around to the front, what is the correct order of the cortical regions?
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Dr. Frankenstein made a mistake during neurosurgery on his monster. After the operation, the monster "saw" with his hears and "heard" with his eyes. It is likely that DR. Frankenstein rewired neural connections in the monster's:
thalamus
A scientist from another planet wishes to study the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion and memory. You recommend that the scientist study the ________ of a creature.
limbic system
The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain's usage of glucose is called a __________
PET scan
If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode in to the
hypothalamus
The ______ hemisphere specializes in picture recognition
right
People are biologically predisposed to protect their offspring, fear heights, and be attracted to fertile-appearing members of the opposite sex are beliefs of the _________ perspective
evolutionary
The complete instructions for making an organism is:
the human genome
When the effect of one factor(such as environment) depends on another (such as heredity), we say there is a(n) _______ between the two factors
interaction
each cell of the human body has a total of ___________
46 chromosomes
Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist
evolutionary
Of the relatively few genetic difference among humans ____ percent are differences among population groups
less than 1
The fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at conception the sperm contributes a ____ chromosome and the egg contributes a _____ chromosome
Y, X
My sibling and I developed from a single fertilized egg. Who are we? same/opposite identical/fraternal twins
same, identical
The hormone ______ stimulates growth of the male sex organs
testosterone
If raised in a deprived environment, your cortex would be ______ and ______
lighter, thinner
__________ refers to how our knowledge and expectations influence perception
top- down processing
The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we ________________
interpret sensory stimuli
True/ false: the brain processes some information without our awareness
true
True/ False: Stimuli too weak to cross our thresholds for awareness may trigger a response in our sense receptors
true
True/ false Because the "absolute" threshold is a statistical average, we are able to detect weaker stimuli some of the time
true
If you can just notice the difference b/t 10 and 11 pound weights, how much would a second weight be to where you could differentiate from a 100 pound weight?
110
Given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. This is a description of visions:
absolute threshold
Finding the cold water of a swimming pool warmer after you have been in it for a while is an example of:
sensory adaption
________ refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation
Bottom-up processing
_______ is to recognizing a stimulus as _______ is to interpretating a stimulus
sensation, perception
The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is ________
inattentional blindness
In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your:
difference threshold
A decrease in sensory responsiveness accompanying an unchanging stimulus is called:
sensory adaption
Superman's eyes used __________, while his brain used _________
bottom up processing, top down processing
The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color, depth, movement, and form, and works on each aspect simultaneously. This is called:
parallel processing
Neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and inhibited by another's is a belief of the ________
opponent-process theory
One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in
wavelength
_______ is when the image falls in front of the retina
Nearsightedness
Wavelength is to ______ as ______ is to brightness
hue, intensity
In the opponent process theory, the three pairs of processes are:
red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am a(an) _____________ cell
opponent-process
The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the
retina
In comparing the human eye to a camera, the film would be located in the eye's
retina
______ enable color vision
cones
The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is
transduction
______ are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina and have a higher absolute threshold for brightness than rods
cones
In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should:
stare directly at the object
Frequency is to pitch as amplitude is to ______
loudness
The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear high/low pitch sounds
low
The hearing losses that occur with age are especially pronounced for high/low pitched sounds
high
Nerve deafness is caused by damage to the
cochlea
The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of highest/lowest pitches
lowest
For high/low frequencies, pitch is coded according to place of vibration on the basilar membrane
high
For higher/lower pitches, the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches the sound's frequency
lower
List the correct order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear. (out of auditory canal, cochlea, eardrum, and middle ear)
auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea
Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the monster cannot transduce sound. Dr. Frankenstein omitted the:
basilar membrane
75 year old Claude has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. Most likely his hearing problem involves:
the hair cells of his inner ear.
Finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold or finding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infection are examples of:
sensory interaction
The principle that one sense may influence another is
sensory interaction
The receptors for taste are located in the
taste buds
What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed?
kinesthesis
_________ involves information from the muscles, tendons, and joints
kinesthesis
According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the large/small nerve fibers that open/close the spinal gate
large, close
_______ has no special receptors, no single stimulus, and is influenced by both physical and psychological phenomena
pain
Of the four distinct skin senses(warmth, cold, pressure, pain), the only one that has definable receptors is
pressure
The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is
relative motion
The illusion that the St. Louis Gateway arch appears taller than it is wide is based on our sensitivity to which monocular depth cue
relative height
The _____ theory of perception states that the mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions
Gestalt
The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called
continuity
When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller/larger retinal image will be perceived as being more distant
smaller
Studying the road map before her trip, Colleen had no trouble following the route of the highway she planned to travel. Colleen's ability illustrates the principle of
continuity
The visual cliff tests an infant's perceptual sensitivity to which depth cue?
texture gradient
When the traffic light changed from red to green, the drivers on both sides of Leo's vehicle pulled quickly forward,giving Leo the disorienting feeling that his car was rolling backward. Which principle explains Leo's misperception?
visual capture
Because the flowers in the foreground appeared coarse and grainy, the photographer decided that the picture was taken too near the sect. This conclusion was based on which depth cue?
texture gradient
As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of
perceptual constancy
the phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection b/t an object's perceived ______ and its perceived _______
size, distance
Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as _________ due to the principle of relative height
farther away
The term gestalt means
whole
Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that its getting closer instead of larger because of
size constancy
If you slowly bring your finger toward your face until it eventually touches your nose, eye-muscle cues called _______ convey depth information to your brain
convergence
According to the philosopher _____, we learn to perceive the world
Locke
Kittens and monkeys reared seeing only diffuse, unpatterned light later had difficulty perceiving the [size/color/or shape] of objects
shape
Regina claims that she can bend spoons and levitate furniture. Regina apparently believes she has the power of
psychokinesis
A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of
telepathy
Thanks to _______ psychologists, TiVo and DVR have solved the TV recording problem caused by the complexity of VCRs
human factors
Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored typically are unable to _______
recognize familiar objects
Disordered behaviors arise from the interaction of _____ and _____.
nature, nurture
The french reformer who insisted that madness was not demon possession and who called for humane treatment of patients was
Pinel
Disorders such as ________ are universal whereas others, such as anorexia nervosa are culture bound
depression
The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV is high/low
high
The term insanity refers to
legal definitions
True/false: A behavior cannot be defined as abnormal unless it is considered harmful to society
false
True/false: Definitions of abnormal behavior are culture-dependent
true
The fact that disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity, whereas other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound provides evidence for the ______model of psychological disorders
biopsychosocial
Our early ancestors commonly attributed disordered behavior to
evil spirits
true/false: Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders
false
true/false: Labels may influence behavior by creating self-fulfilling prophecies
true
True/false: The medical model views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable
true
Behavior is classified as disordered when it is _______, ________, and ________.
deviant, distressful, dysfunctional
Many psychologists dislike using the DSM-IV because of its ______ ______ bias
medical model
13 year old Ronald constantly fidgets in his seat at school, frequently blurts out answers without being called, and is extremely distractible. A psychiatrist might diagnose him with
ADHD
Irene occasionally experiences unpredictable episodes of intense dread accompanied by chest pains and a sensation of smothering, since her symptoms have no apparent cause, they would probably be classified as indicative of
panic attack
Joe has an intense, irrational fear of snakes. He is suffering from a
phobia
the _______ perspective would most likely view phobias as displaced responses to incompletely repressed impulses
psychoanalytic
Phobias and obsessive compulsive behaviors are classified as _________ disorders
anxiety
Sharon is continually tense, jittery, and apprehensive for no reason. She would be diagnosed as suffering a(an)
generalized anxiety disorder
Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times a day. Jason would we diagnosed as suffering from a(an)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
After falling from a ladder, Joseph is afraid of airplanes, although he has never flown. This demonstrates that some fears arise from :
stimulus generalization
Julia's psychologist believes that Julia's fear of heights can be traced to a conditioned fear she developed after falling from a ladder. This explanation reflects a ______ perspective
learning
which of the following is a person most likely to acquire a phobia(heights, being in public, being dirty)
heights
When expecting to be electrically shocked, people with an antisocial personality disorder, as compared to normal people, show greater/less fear and greater/less autonomic arousal
less, less
Nicholas Spanos considers dissociative identity disorder to be
role playing
Psychoanalytic and learning theorists both agree that dissociative disorders are symptoms that represent the person's attempt to deal with
anxiety
As a child, Monica was criticized severely by her mother for not living up to her expectations, followed by a eating with a whip. As an adult, Monica's shy and introverted. Sometimes, however, she acts more like a child, throwing tantrums if she doesn't get her way. At other times, she is a flirting, happy-go-lucky young lady. Most likely, she's suffering from:
dissociative identity disorder
Bob has never been able to keep a job. He's been in and out of jail for charges such as theft, sexual assault, and spousal abuse. Bob would most likely be diagnosed as having a(an)
antisocial personality
Dr. Jekyll, whose second personality was Mr. Hyde, had a(an) _______ disorder
dissociative
According to the social-cognitive perspective, a person who experiences unexpected aversive events may develop helplessness and manifest a _______ disorder
mood
Alicia's doctor, who thinks that Alicia's depression has a biochemical cause, prescribes a drug that
increases norepinephrine
Which of the following is the most pervasive(everywhere) of the psychological disorders?
depression
Connie's therapist has suggested that her depression stems from unresolved anger toward her parents. Evidently, Connie's therapist is working within the ______ perspective
psychoanalytic
Gender differences in the prevalence of depression may be partly due to the fact that when stressful experiences occur women tend to _______, while men tend to ______
think, act
According to psychoanalytic theory, memory of losses, especially in combination with internalized anger, is likely to result in
depression
In general, women are more vulnerable than men to active/passive disorders such as ______.
passive, depression
Which neurotransmitter is present in overabundant amounts during the manic phase of bipolar disorder
norepinephrine
On Monday, Matt felt optimistic, energetic, and on top of the world. On Tuesday, he felt hopeless and lethargic, and thought that the future looked very grim. Matt would most likely be diagnosed as having:
bipolar disorder
Social-cognitive theorists contend that ______ is linked with negative moods, maladaptive explanations of failure, and self-defeating beliefs
depression
True/false:Depression is more common in females than in males
true
True/false:Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event.
false
True/false: Most depressive episodes last less than three months
true