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Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

Bacon's rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

Sir William Berkeley

the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion

Stono Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.

Liesler's Rebellion

a part of the anti Stuart uprisings, 1689, city militia seized back the harbors main fort, they then began to make repairs and the defenses stronger, they then called the elections to an assembly. Leiser and his son in law were both convicted and hung. (Basically Jacob Leiser seized control of lower New York).

King William's War

(1689-1697) Small war between French and English that had small battles fought in Northern New England.

Queen Anne's War

second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and England in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of the War of the Spanish Succession

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Molasses Act

A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling.

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

First Great Awakening

Religious revival movement during the 1730s and 1740s; its leaders were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards; religious pluralism was promoted by the idea that all Protestant denominations were legitimate.

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Stamp Act

A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies

Sons of Liberty

Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.

Committees of Correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

First Contenental Congress

IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD COLONIAL INDEPENDENCE; met in philadelphia; boycott british goods

Albany Congress

1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.

Currency Act

prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy

Circular Letter

A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.

The Intolerable Acts

These five Acts passed by Parliament in 1774 closed Boston Harbor, pohibited town meetings, and revoked the Massachusetts charter, making the Colony completely government by England. They also included a stronger Quartering Act. An unrelated act that is tied to these acts is the Quebec Act, which gave Canadians more rights, more French rights including provisions on Catholicism, as well as giving Quebec more land. These acts enraged Massachusetts, by design, but also enraged the other colonies which surprised the British

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

petition to the king urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights; recognized Parliament's authority to regulate commerce

Suffolk Resolves

Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias.

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Baron von Stuben

Prussian general, helped Continental Army in Valley Forge

bi-cameral legislatures

a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

Northwest Ordinances

The Ordinance of 1784 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, divided the Old Northwest into territories that would become the states when their population equaled that of the smallest existing state.

The Land Ordinance of 1785 - Promoted settlement by mandating a rectangular grid system of surveying that could be completed quickly, and by encouraging large-scale land purchases.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 - Created the territories that would eventually become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The ordinance prohibited slavery in those states, and used funds from land-sales for the support of schools. When population reached 5,000 free adult men, the citizens could elect a territorial legislature. At 60,000, the legislature could ratify a constitution and apply to join the confederation.

Virginia Plan

Initial proposal by Madison at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.

New Jersey Plan

New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress

Great Compromise

the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).

Great Compromise

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

Electoral College

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

Three-Fifths Compromise

agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress


those who favor a stronger National government

proportional representation

representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote

ratifying conventions

meetings held in the states to approve the constitution.


opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)


economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues

free trade

international trade free of government interference

laissez-faire economic principles

Economic theory derived from 18th century economist Adam Smith, who argued that an economy would run soundly if the government took a hands-off role in the economy; oppose high tariffs and economic protectionism

Report on the Public Credit

The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations for the retirement of the national debt. Commissioned by the House of Representatives on September 21, 1789 and presented January 9, 1790, this 140,000-word document was the first proposed federal assumption of debt owed by the states.

national bank

a commercial bank chartered by the federal government

Declaration of Neutrality

During the French Revolution, Washington declared neutrality which allowed American merchants to prosper by trading w/ both sides. Jefferson felt that the U.S. should have helped.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Jay's Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Pinckney's Treaty

it was negotiated with Spain for the free navigation of the Mississippi River

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.

Alien Act

Allowed the President to remove any foreigner from the country who was thought to be dangerous. Immigrants had to live in America 14 years before being able to vote. Most immigrants were Democratic Republicans, so this kept them from voting for a long time.

Sedition Act

made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

Political declarations in favor of states' rights, written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, in opposition the the Alien and Sedition acts. Maintained that states could nullify federal legislation they regarded as unconstitutional

Marbury v Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

Lousiana Purchase

The purchase of French land between the Missippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US/

Lewis and Clark Expedition

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States

War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

Treaty of Ghent

treaty that ended the war of 1812

American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

12th Amendment

Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.

Judiciary Act

a 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation

midnight appointments

Adams signed the commissions for these Federal judges during his last night in office. Demonstrated the Federalists' last minute attempt to keep some power in the newly Republican Government.

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

judicial review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

Essex Junto

New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.


Forcing people into service, as in the navy

Embargo of 1807

This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.

Non-Intercourse Act

it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence


The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.


the formal withdrawal of a state from the union

Era of Good Feelings

the years 1816 to 1823, A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.

Second National Bank

Proposed by Madison in 1816, would issue national currency, private enterprise with 1/5 owned by government, stabilized economy

Tariff of 1816

This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers

Removal Act of 1830

An act that forced all Indians to accept an exchange for their land in the East for land in Indian Territory (further west).

The Liberator

An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.

Spoils System

the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs

Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago

This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.

Wilmont Proviso

bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico

Kansas-Nebraska Act

This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.

Freeport Doctrine

Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.

Age of Enlightment

an intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues

Treaty of Tordisillas

spain and portugal fought so much that the pope had to make a treaty line = everything west of the americas was spains and east was portugal

National Road

First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.

Zenger Case

The Zenger Case was a trial against the author of an article in a New York newspaper that criticized a corrupt British governor. Zenger was charged with sedition and libel, but he was acquitted. The event was a contribution to the adaptation of the policy of freedom of the press.

Second Great Awakening

A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.

Shay's Rebellion

was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of

Newburgh Conspiracy

The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay, they also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.


Started the "federalist party"; formed to support Alexander Hamilton's beliefs; favored a National bank and opposed supporting the French Revolution

Treaty of Greenville

This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.

Marshall Court

strongly identified w/ vested rights, expanding court's jurisdiction, judicial nationalism over states rights, blocking state regulations, freeing american commerce from restraints placed by states

Taney Court

private property and activities of corporations can be regulated by state legislatures; expand economic opportunity; replaced marshall court


loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole

mexican war

after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000

Compromise of 1850

Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession

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