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18 terms

social psych ch4

STUDY
PLAY
Social Perception
The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
Nonverbal Communication
The way people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words
Encode
To express or emit nonverbal behavior such as smiling or patting someone on the back
Decode
To interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior; such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
Affect Blend
A facial expression in which different parts of the face register different emotions
Display Rules
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Emblems
Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture. ("ok" sign)
Implicit Personality Theory
A schema people use to group various kinds of people together (ex. many people believe that kind people are also generous)
Attribution Theory
A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior
Internal Attribution
Inference that a person is acting a certain way because of something internal (such as attitude)
External Attribution
Inference that a person is acting a certain way because of the situation which a person is in (the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation)
Correspondence bias
People expect others' behavior to correspond with their own beliefs and personalities
Perceptual Salience
the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
Two Step Process of Attribution
analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situationl reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the origial iinternal attribution
Actor/Observer Difference
The tendency to see other people's behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one's own behavior
Self-Serving Attributions
Explanations for ones successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors
Defensive Attributions
Explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and morality
Belief in a just world
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people