168 terms


Miss Chandler's 1st hour Midterm 12/19/11
the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth
"what is it like?"
physical features and cultural characteristics of a location - such as climate, landforms, and vegetation
"where is it?"
"how are places similar or different?"
area of the earth's surface with similar characteristics, usually have more than one characteristic
"how do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another?"
human environment interaction
"how do people relate to their physical world?"
absolute location
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
relative location
describes a place in relation to other places around it
each half of the globe
the imaginary line that encircles the globe, dividing the earth into northern and southern halves
prime meridian
the imaginary line at zero meridian used to measure longitude east to west, and dividing the earth's east and west halves; also called the Greenwich Meridian because it passes through Greenwich, England
a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator and that are used in locating places north or south; the equator is labeled the zero-degree line for latitude
linear distance
how far across the earth a person, idea, or product travels; can be affected by physical geography by forcing a shift in a route to avoid impassable land or water
time distance
the amount of time it takes for a person, idea, or product to travel; shortened by modern inventions
psychological distance
refers to the way people view distance
a 3D representation of the earth
a 2D graphic representation of selected parts of the earth's surface
map projection
a way of mapping the earth's surface that reduces distortion caused by converting 3D into 2D
topographic map
a general reference map; a representation of natural and man made features on the earth
thematic map
emphasize specific kinds of info, such as climate or population density
compass rose
shows you the directions (north, south, east, west) on the map
lists and explains the symbols and use of color on the map
many details = large scale
few details = small scale
landmasses above water on earth
solar system
consists of the sun and eight known planets, and other celestial bodies that orbit the sun
the earth's center, made up of iron and nickel, the inner core is solid, outer core is liquid
a rock layer about 1800 miles thick that is between crust and core
molten rock material formed when solid rock in the mantle or crust melts
thin rock layer making up earth's surface
layers of gases immediately surrounding the earth
solid rock portion of the earth's surface
waters comprising the earth's surface, including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and vapor in the atmosphere
all the parts of the earth where plants and animals live, including atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere
continental drift
hypothesis that all continents were once joined into super-continent that split apart over millions of years
super-continent on earth millions of years ago
hydrologic cycle
the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth, water evaporates from oceans, water is in atmosphere, vapor cools and falls as precipitation
drainage basin
an area drained by a major river and its tributaries
naturally formed features on the surface of the earth
continental shelf
the earth's surface from the edge of a continent to the deep part of the ocean
the difference in elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point
the combination of the surface shape and composition of the landforms and their distribution in a region
tectonic plate
enormous moving pieces of the earth's lithosphere
fracture in the earth's crust
violent movement of the earth
device that measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake
the point directly above the focus on the earth's surface
richter scale
uses info collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
a giant wave in the ocean
a natural event, formed when magma, gases, and water from the lower part of the crust or mantle collect in underground chambers and eventually erupt and pour out of cracks in the earth's surface
magma that has reached the earth's surface
ring of fire
chain of volcanoes that lines the Pacific Rim
physical and chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface, occurring slowly over many years
small pieces of rock produced by weathering processes
mechanical weathering
natural processes that break rock into smaller pieces
chemical weathering
a process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock
the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity
a fan-like landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean
wind-blown silt and clay sediment that produces very fertile soil
a large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity
either of two times a year when the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon at the furthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter
each of the two days a year when day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn
condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time
falling water droplets in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail
a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters
a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the Western Pacific
a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 mph and reduced visibility of less than one-fourth of a mile
a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall
el nino
a water pattern created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of south America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Americans and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia
greenhouse effect
layer of gases released by burning of coal and petroleum traps come solar energy, causing higher temps
flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean
frozen subsoil
an interdependent community of plants and animals
broadleaf trees
needleleaf trees
located in the tropical zone and is covered with heavy concentration of broadleaf trees
ecosystem of a region
total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group
a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture
ethnic group
a group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage
taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need
spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior
cultural hearth
site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures
occurs when a society changes because it accepts or adapts an innovation
changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes
a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe
belief in one god
belief in many gods
belief in divine forces of nature
oldest monotheistic religion
concentrated in Israel
long tradition of faith and culture tied tightly together
holy book - Torah
religious center - Jerusalem
largest of all religions
New Testament based on teachings of Jesus Christ
holy book - Bible
three major divisions - Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox
offshoot of Hinduism
religious center - India
founder - Siddharta Gautama
rejects caste system
reach enlightened spiritual state called nirvana
several branches - Theravada, Mahayana, Lamaism, Zen
originated in southwest Asia
prophet Muhammad
followers - Muslims
god - Allah
book - Qur'an
divisions - Sunni, Shiite
originated in India
divine spirit - Brahman - divided into many gods
caste system
push factors
factors that are negative or discourage someone from moving to a place
pull factors
factors that are positive or make people want to live somewhere
an independent society that occupies a specific territory and has full control of internal and external affairs
refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
when a nation and state occupy the same territory
citizens hold political power
a ruling family holds political power
an individual or small group holds political parties
political and economic power held by central government
having no outlet to the sea
urban geography
study of how people use space in cities
area of large population and centers of business and culture
built-up areas touching cities or other suburbs
metropolitan area
large cities and nearby suburbs and towns
a dramatic rise in the number of cities in the last 200 years
production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people
natural resources
all materials on or in earth
basic facilities, services, and machinery needed for a community to function
Appalachian Mountains
extend 1600 miles from Newfoundland to Alabama; include the Green, Catskill, Blue Ridge, and Smokey Mountain chains, more than 400 million years old, peaks are eroded and rounded
Great Plains
large, mostly treeless area between Rocky Mountains and Mississippi river
Canadian Shield
large, mostly treeless, flat area around Hudson Bay
Rocky Mountains
extend 3000 miles from Alaska to New Mexico; 80 million years old; not eroded, with tall, rugged peaks
Great Lakes
some of the world's largest lakes, formed by glaciers, major shipping route utilizing locks
prevailing westerlies
winds that blow from west to east across middle latitudes
huge swampland covering 4000 square miles
people who move from place to place
land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska
St. Lawrence Seaway
North America's most important deep water ship route; completed in the 1950s as a joint project between the United States and Canada; connects Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean by the St. Lawrence River
section of a waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered
Columbian Exchange
movement of plants, animals, and diseases between the Eastern and Western hemispheres during the age of exploration
Louisiana Purchase
territory between Mississippi river and Rocky Mountains; purchased from France in 1803; doubled the United States' size
free, open land available for settlement
goods sold to another country
free enterprise
an economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for profit with little government control
New England
Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together
the Midwest
subregion that contains 12 north-central states in the United States; vast, largely flat plains; Great Lakes, Mississippi River; breadbasket
the South
subregion covering one-fourth of the United States' land area; contains more than one-third of the population; 16 states, 11 of which made up the Confederacy
the West
subregion containing 13 states; stretches from Great Plains to Pacific; covers one-half of the land but one-fifth of the population; people settle where climate and landforms are favorable
prime minister
major leader of Parliament and head of government
a political union
use or threat of use of violence for the purpose of causing fear for political or social ends
global network
worldwide interconnected group
an alliance
biological weapon
bacteria and viruses that can be used to harm or kill people, animals, or plants
urban sprawl
when poorly planned developments spread a city's population over a wider and wider geographical area
sustainable community
communities where residents could live or work
Andes Mountains
part of a chain of mountain ranges that run through western portions of America; these are located in Latin America
Amazon River
flows about 4000 miles from west to east emptying into Atlantic Ocean; fed by over 1000 tributaries; carries more water to ocean than any other river in the world
slash and burn
cutting trees, brush, and grasses and burning the debris to clear the field
terraced farming
step-like horizontal fields into hillsides and slopes, allowing steep land to be cultivated for crops
Aztec capital, present-day Mexico City
mixed Spanish and Native American heritage
North American Free Trade Agreement
Panama Canal
a ship canal cut through Panama connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean
informal economy
takes place outside official channels without benefits or protection for workers
developed in Jamaica in the 1960s; mostly about social problems and religion; pioneer Bob Marley
a member of the Quechen peoples of South America who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains in the 15th and 16th centuries
most colorful feast day in Brazil; people in costumes ride on floats through the streets
clearing forests
global warming
the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, preventing heat from escaping into space and causing rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns
a government run by a few persons or a small group
steep u-shaped valleys that connect to the sea and are filled with sea water after the glaciers melt; located in Norway; provide great harbors for fishing
hill or very low mountain that may contain mesas and high plateaus; some are eroded remains of ancient mountain ranges; separate groups of people; make movement difficult; affect climate
partially decayed plant matter found in bogs; cut from beds and burned for energy in Ireland
North Atlantic Drift
a current of warm water from the tropic; flows near Europe's west coast; prevailing westerlies pick up warmth from this
hot, steady wind that blows from North Africa across Mediterranean into southern Europe; most Mediterranean countries experience it
cold, dry wind form the north; in winter, Mediterranean coast of France receives this
earthen bank; holds back the North Sea in the Netherlands; giant waves ripped through them in 1953; thousands of buildings were destroyed; Netherlands are prone to floods because much or the land is below sea level
land reclaimed by diking and draining
structures that are used to control the sea's destructive impact on human life; Dutch constructed; include dikes and terpen
high earthen platforms that provide places to go for safety during floods and high tides