Unit 4: New Ideas & New Worlds
Terms in this set (37)
A period of great cultural and artistic rebirth that began in Italy around 1350 and spread throughout Europe.
A time in a culture of high achievement. Must have wealth, a stable government, and New ideas or innovation to build on.
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
Not religious or holy; pertaining to worldly things
What men of the Renaissance were expected to strive to be; A person who is successful when it comes to working, and overall universal, knew how to dance, fight, sing, write poetry, and how to create art, and well educated with the classics.
upper-class women should know the classics and be charming- not expected to seek fame, inspire art but not create it, little influence in politics
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
Written by Martin Luther and is considered the cause the Protestant Reformation; It was a list of 95 abuses of the Catholic Church; They were posted on October 31, 1517.
(Johann Tetzel sold them), Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation. If you buy it- all sins forgiven.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
A group of Protestants within the Church of England, that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without a Pope.
Often associated with Calvinism in the Protestant Reformation, it is the doctrine that God has already chosen who will be saved and become Christian and that people have no actual choice in the matter.
Those who are predestined to be saved by God.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
the effort of the late 1500s and 1600s to reform the Catholic Church from within in response to the Protestant Reformation; also called the Counter-Reformation
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
The Council of Trent
a group of Catholic leaders that met between to respond to Protestant challenges and direct the future of the Catholic Church; decided the doctrines and beliefs for the reformed Catholic Church.
The 3 Gs
God, glory, and gold; the three motivations of the explorers
Earth is the center of the Universe
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
European ships that used triangular sails & rudders to improve steering & sailing against winds. These were instrumental in European exploration.
Tools used by sailors to calculate latitude based on the angle between stars & the sea - inaccurate in heavy seas
The act of sailing around the entire world
A foreign policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
a land controlled by another nation in some way
the global exchange of foods, plants, animals, and disease that began with Columbus' exploration of the Americas
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Favorable Balance of Trade
Situation that exists when a country sells more goods than it buys from foreign countries
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The buying & selling of Africans to work in the Americas beginning in the 1500s
Trading System between Europe, Africa, and the colonies; European purchased slaves in Africa and sold them to colonies, new materials from colonies went to Europe while European finished products were sold or traded for slaves.
political system in which a ruler has total power
a period in the 1700s where philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method & reason to explain human nature
Social critics of the eighteenth century who criticized the government & church
An agreement between a government & the people where they give up some of their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
A belief that ultimate power resides with the people.