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Chapters 13, 14, 15

The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of

behavioral consistency

The belief that some distressing physical symptoms could not be readily explained in terms of neurological impairments contributed most directly to

Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts

Free association is central to the process of


In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the unconscious by having the entire _____ at that level


Ego is to id as__is to _____

reality principle; pleasure principle

Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers. Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the


According to Freud's theory, the ego...

is the executive part of personality

For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of


Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a


Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?

Carl Jung

Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, expanded Freud's assumption about

seeking security over insecurity

Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called _____tests.


The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that

only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity

Frida was informed by a professional palm reader, "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates...

the Barnum effect

The Barnum Effect

individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people.

Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck's basic personality dimensions she would be classified as


Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the

Thematic Apperception Test

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?


reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the trait perspective is to


According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events

Learned helplessness is most likely to result from

an external locus of control

Learned helplessness is most likely to promote


According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the vest ways to predict a person's future behavior is to

observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations

Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates

the self-serving bias

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the


The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of


The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by

Carl Jung

Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of


Big Five

extroversion, openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness,. agreeableness

Is the MMPI test empirically derived?


The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as

the Barnum effect

Which perspective most clearly emphasizes influences of traits and situations on human behavior?

social-cognitive perspective

Social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context

Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequences of her superior dietary self-control. It may have started because of the environment at the grocery store or her thinking before get got to the store. This best illustrates the importance of

reciprocal determinism

Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates

an external locus of control

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates

learned helplessness

Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:


Research on self-perception indicates that most people

view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others

When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates

the spotlight effect

Mira claims that alcohol dependence is a disease that, like pneumonia or meningitis, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with

the medical model

Using DSM-IV-TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis, This indicates that the DSM-IV-TR si


Anxiety is considered disordered if it is:

frequent and distressing

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n)

generalized anxiety disorder

While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that eh could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from a(n)

panic attack

Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of

an obsession

A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ___________ perspective.


Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the


Hypochondriasis is characterized by

the misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.

Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with:


Several weeks after being fired from a job he has held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recongnize his wife. Landon's experience is most indicate of

dissociative disorder

Is bipolar disorder classified as a mood disorder?


Because it is so pervasive, _______is often considered "the common cold" of psychological disorders


Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger toward parents?



Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with


Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from


The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are

anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity

An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by

a lack of guilt feelings

Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory trace from out species history as the

collective unconscious

The symptoms of ______ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ______.

antisocial personality; schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with

biomedical therapies

Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of


Carl Rogers is known for the development of

client-centered therapy

client-centered therapy/ person-centered therapy

a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth.

Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by

Ivan Pavlov

In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was repeatedly presented while he was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of

exposure therapies

Systematic desensitization involves

associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli

In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?

a token economy

Token economy

an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats

The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of a

family therapy

family therapy

therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

Meta-analysis refers to

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.

Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of


Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are prescrive to

elevate arousal and mood

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of


Because Gretchen is afraid of contracting infectious diseases, she compulsively avoids shaking people's hands or touching doorknobs. Research suggests than an especially effective treatment for her difficulty would involve

behavior therapy

cognitive-behavior therapy

a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy

Melanie's therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates

cognitive-behavior therapy

In programs to treat alcoholism, clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. The therapist is using a technique known as

aversive conditioning

Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne's therapeutic approach would best be described as


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