The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
The belief that some distressing physical symptoms could not be readily explained in terms of neurological impairments contributed most directly to
Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts
Free association is central to the process of
In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the unconscious by having the entire _____ at that level
Ego is to id as__is to _____
reality principle; pleasure principle
Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers. Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the
According to Freud's theory, the ego...
is the executive part of personality
For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, expanded Freud's assumption about
seeking security over insecurity
Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called _____tests.
The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that
only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader, "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates...
the Barnum effect
The Barnum Effect
individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people.
Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck's basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the
Thematic Apperception Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the trait perspective is to
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events
Learned helplessness is most likely to result from
an external locus of control
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the vest ways to predict a person's future behavior is to
observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
the self-serving bias
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the Barnum effect
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes influences of traits and situations on human behavior?
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context
Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequences of her superior dietary self-control. It may have started because of the environment at the grocery store or her thinking before get got to the store. This best illustrates the importance of
Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
an external locus of control
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates
Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:
Research on self-perception indicates that most people
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others
When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect
Mira claims that alcohol dependence is a disease that, like pneumonia or meningitis, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with
the medical model
Using DSM-IV-TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis, This indicates that the DSM-IV-TR si
Anxiety is considered disordered if it is:
frequent and distressing
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n)
generalized anxiety disorder
While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that eh could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from a(n)
Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ___________ perspective.
Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the
Hypochondriasis is characterized by
the misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with:
Several weeks after being fired from a job he has held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recongnize his wife. Landon's experience is most indicate of
Is bipolar disorder classified as a mood disorder?
Because it is so pervasive, _______is often considered "the common cold" of psychological disorders
Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger toward parents?
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from
The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are
anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity
An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
a lack of guilt feelings
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory trace from out species history as the
The symptoms of ______ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ______.
antisocial personality; schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with
Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of
Carl Rogers is known for the development of
client-centered therapy/ person-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by
In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was repeatedly presented while he was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of
Systematic desensitization involves
associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of a
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
Meta-analysis refers to
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are prescrive to
elevate arousal and mood
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
Because Gretchen is afraid of contracting infectious diseases, she compulsively avoids shaking people's hands or touching doorknobs. Research suggests than an especially effective treatment for her difficulty would involve
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Melanie's therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates
In programs to treat alcoholism, clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. The therapist is using a technique known as
Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne's therapeutic approach would best be described as