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50 terms

Ecology

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following factors limits exponential growth of a population?
A. limited resource
B. increases in predator
C. competition between members
D. competition between species
**E. all of these choices limit exponential growth
The particular place where an organism lives is its
A. life zone
B. niche
C. ecosystem
D. community
**E. habitat
A cohort is
A. all the individuals in a population born at the same time
B. all individuals living in the same habitat
C. all the different species in a community
D. all the organisms interacting in the ecosystem
**E. all of the choices are correct
The population growth rate is negative when
A. birthrate is greater than death rate
**B. death rate is greater than birth rate
The maximum rate of natural increase of a population that occurs under ideal conditions is the
A. population growth
**B. biotic potential
C. environmental resistance
D. carrying capacity
E. density-independent population
Population size-levels off at the ______of an environment
A. population growth
B. biotic potential
C. environmental resistance
**D. carrying capacity
The carrying capacity of the environment for a species is determined by
A. the reproductive rate of the organism
B. the number of organisms of that species
C. the state and national wildlife laws pertaining
D. age distribution of that species
**E. the limited availability of renewable resources in the environment and the environmental resistance to the biotic potential of the organism.
Opportunistic species
A. are composed of large individual organisms
**B. are good dispersers and colonizers of new habitats
C. are slow to mature
D. have long life spans
E. are adapted to stable environments
In the logistic growth curve formula, when N is very large, (K-N)/N is almost equal to 0, which results in
**A. the population growing as fast as it can, or r(N)
B. the population growth slowing to zero
C. the population exceeding carrying capacity
D. the population going extinct
E. You can't tell without knowing the value of r
If the members of a population are small in size, mature early, and have high parity and fecundity, they are
A. K-strategists
**B. r-strategists
C. neither K-strategists nor r-strategists, but have characteristics of both
As the carrying capacity of an environment is approached by a population,
A. births begin to exceed deaths
**B. deaths begin to exceed births
C. the rate of reproduction increase
D. population growth begins to be exponential
E. density-dependent environmental resistance increases
In a population with low death rates, this age structure diagram indicates taht
A. the population is decreasing
B. the population is stable
C. the biotic potential must be larger than usual
**D. the population will continue to grow for some time.
Density-independent factors which play a role in regulating population size in nature include
A. weather
B. natural disasters
C. geographical barriers
**D. all of the choices are correct
Is it possible that the carbon atoms in your body may have once made up the living tissues of another person or animal in earlier times? This is
A. possible only if you are a cannibal
**B. possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere
C. impossible since carbon can't enter a living system more than once
D. highly unlikely
The greenhouse gases include all of the following EXCEPT
A. nitrous oxide
B. methane
C. carbon dioxide
**D. water
An ecosystem contains
A. only the biotic components
B. only the abiotic components
C. only the energy flow components
**D. both the biotic and abiotic components
E. only the food relationships
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
A. omnivore - eats both producers and consumers
**B. herbivore - eats producers and performs photosynthesis
C. detritivore - feeds on decomposing organic matter
D. autotroph - performs photosynthesis
E. carnivore - feeds on other consumers
Energy flow in an ecosystem begin with
A. omnivores
B. herbivores
**C. autotrophs
D. detritivores
E. carnivores
Energy flow in an ecosystem is not cyclic because energy is
A. destroyed as it is used
B. evenly spread out over many organisms
C. converted to many kinds of useful energy
D. increased as you go up the energy pyramid
**E. converted to heat, which is no longer useful
Approximately what percentage of the energy in one trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level?
A. 1%
**B. 10%
C. 30%
D. 60%
E. 100%
Which of the following statements about ozone is true?
A. ozone is the same as molecular oxygen O2
**B. ozone destruction is catalyzed by chlorofluorocarbons like Freon
C. ozone increases photosynthesis in plants
D. the ozone shield is breaking down
In a grazing food chain,
A. primary consumers eat detritus
**B. primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms
C. secondary consumers eat detritus
D. secondary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
E. all the consumers are primary consumers
The actual conditions under which an organism exists in nature constitute its
A. habitat
**B. realized niche
C. fundamental niche
D. resource partition
What occurs when two species with very similar niches live in an overlapping range?
A. speication
B. hypervolume
**C. competitive exclusion
D. total extinction of one species
E. a switch in habitat for one of the organism
MacArthur discovered that five species of warblers coexisted on spruce trees by foraging on the same caterpillar, but in different places of the tree canopy. This is
A. an exception to the competitive exclusion principle
B. an exception based on bird taking longer
C. confirmation that all warblers were variations
**D. an example of resource partitioning
_______ occurs when one living organism feeds on another
A. competition
B. mimicry
C. commensalism
**D. Predation
E. symbiosis
Which of the following is correct in a predator prey cycle?
A. A decline in the numbers of predators causes a decline in the number of prey
**B. A decline in the numbers of prey cause a decline in the number of predators
C. An increase in the number of predators triggers an increase in the numbers of prey.
D. All of these are correct
Primary succession takes much longer than secondary succession because it involves
A. colonization by more K-selected species
**B. time for development of the soil
C. more time for development of a seed bank
D. colonization by organisms that are farther away.
E. redevelopment of the atmospheric gases
_________ is the interaction between two species as both attempt to use the same environmental resources
**A. competition
B. A community
C. an ecosystem
D. Predation
E. Symbiosis
A harmless fly resembling a stinging wasp is
**A. a Batesian mimic
B. A mullerian mimic
C. a case of mutual camouflage
D. commensalism
The first species to being secondary succession are called pioneer species, or colonizers
False
_____ lakes are nutrient rich and tend to have large populations of algae
A. oligotrophic
**B. Eutrophic
C. Temperate
D. Stratified
Major regional groups of interacting terrestrial ecosystems, characterized by climate and geography are called
A. biospheres
B. estuaries
C. tundras
D. taigas
**E. biomes
If the Earth was standing still (not rotating) and was a solid, uniform ball, wind directions would
A. cease
**B. run north and south
C. run east and west
D. remain the same since the Earth's rotation does not affect wind directions
All of the following terrestrial biomes EXCEPT
A. tundra
**B. lentic systems
C. coniferous forests
D.savannas
E. deserts
Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by
A. dry climates with rainfall of 25 - 75 cm per year
B. the highest variation in day and night length
C. the highest amount of organisms living in tree
**D. a growing season that ranges between 140 and 300 days
E. the richest topsoil horizon
The Gulf Stream
**A. brings tropical Caribbean water to the east coast of North AMerica and upper Western Europe
B. makes local climates uniform so that Great Britain has the same climate as Greenland
C. is the major ATlantic ocean current that warms the eastern coast of South AMerica
D. is the source of "El Nino" and is a fishing ground
E. all of the choices are correct
The largest biome on Earth is the
A. tundra
**B. taiga
C. temperate deciduous forest
D. desert
E. ocean (marine aquatic)
Which of the following biomes is characterized by little rain, permafrost, and an average temperature below 0?
A. grasslands
**B. tundra
C. desert
D. taiga
E. temperate deciduous forest
Which of the following biomes is characterized by rich soils, insufficient rainfall for trees, and many herbivores?
**A. grasslands
B. chaparral
C. desert
D. taiga
E. tundra
Which biome is characterized by rainfall under 25 cm/year, hot days, cold nights, and quickly blooming plants
A. grasslands
B. temperate deciduous forests
**C. temperate deserts
D. taiga
E. tundra
The tropical grassland in Africa is called the
**A. savanna
B. chaparral
C. prairie
D. taiga
E. tundra
A forest found in a broad belt in northern Eurasia and North America, with conifers and swamps, is called the
A. tropical rain forest
B. tundra
**C. taiga
D. chaparral
E. temperate deciduous forest
In what order to these layers occur in deep lakes in the temperate zone? From the surface to the bottom of the lake, one would find the
**A. epilimnion - thermocline - hypolimnion
A biome with complex structure, warm weather, plentiful rainfall, and diverse species is a
**A. tropical rainforest
B. savanna
C. taiga
A biome characterized by hot days, cold nights, and cacti is the
A. tundra
**B. desert
C. taiga
D. tropical rain forest
The temperature is nearly uniform throughout a lake
A. during winter when the ice forms
B. during summer when the sunlight warms surface
C. by the end of the fall and spring overturn
D. at all times due to winds causing constant mixing
**E. never. the lake always has different temperature layers and they are reversed in winter and summer
The sunlit portion of a lake is specifically referred to as the
A. littoral zone
**B. limnetic zone
C. profndal zone
D. benthic zone
E. abyssal zone
The bottom of a lake or stream harbors worms, clams, and other organisms in the
A. littoral zone
B. limnetic zone
C. profundal zone
**D. benthic zone
E. abyssal zone
The "nursery" of the sea is the
A. rocky beach
B. sandy beach
C. estuary
**D. coral reef
E. ocean floor