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24 terms

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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Photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
Pigment
dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)
Chlorophyll
any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms
Carotenoid
any of a class of highly unsaturated yellow to red pigments occurring in plants and animals
Thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
NADPH
electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide Fixation
The transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
Aerobic
depending on free oxygen or air
Anaerobic
living or active in the absence of free oxygen
Glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
NADH
electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP
Fermentation
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
Calorie
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
Cellular Respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
NADP+
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
ATP Synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Photosystem
light-collecting units of the chloroplast
Stroma
the supporting tissue of an organ (as opposed to parenchyma)
ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
ADP
an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis