Chapter 6/7 Language vs. Religion
Terms in this set (71)
distinctive manner of oral expression.
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people.
an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
picture that symbolizes an idea or action
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
a language used among speakers of different languages for purposes of trade and commerce.
A language that is written as well as spoken
mono, bi, multi-linguality
One, two, Speaking several languages.
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language.
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
the name given to a place on earth.
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
everyday speech; slang.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans.
Two main dialects of the dozens of dialects of the Chinese language.
Discuss the importance and role of language as an element of culture.
Language is an essential element of culture, possibly the most important medium by which culture is transmitted. Languages even structure the perceptions of their speakers. Attitudes, understandings, and responses are partly determined by the words available.
Explain how language families, branches, and groups are classified and related.
English+German=Western Germanic Group
Western Germanic+Eastern Germanic Groups= Germanic Branch
Germanic+Baltic Branches=Indo-European Family.
Map the distribution of major language families worldwide.
Indo-European (East Europe)
Afro-Asiatic (North Africa)
Show the division of Europe into the following language groups and give specific examples of each:
Germanic (Northern Europe) English
Slavic (Eastern Europe) Russian
Romance (South Western) Spanish
Describe the following characteristics of English:
-Its origin and historical development
-Its worldwide diffusion
-Its spatial variation
-Its cultural role
Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British colonialism. Brought to the New world and many coastal countries by British colonies in 1600s. English has also become and important global lingua franca (When two completely different groups decide on a common language in order to easily communicate for trade and commerce purposes.
Explain the how, why, and where of language change.
Where? Wherever two or more languages interact.
How? Sharing of ideas and slang that could change how a language is already spoken. A common factor in this is lingua franca.
Why? This will allow two different groups to communicate easily even though they are from different backgrounds and languages.
Discuss the regional and local variety in language using the following terms:
An area can have multiple accents, all unique depending on where the person originated from. When two or more groups of different languages or accents come together, either through an isogloss or trade/commerce, they can produce new ways of speaking their language that allows both sides to understand what the other is trying to communicate. This is called slang.
Explain how toponyms are derived and classified and give examples.
Toponyms are the names given to a place. These are language on the land, reflecting past inhabitants and their relation to the land.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
The scattering of people who have a common background or beliefs.
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
The boundaries between the world's major faiths.
The boundaries within a major religion.
Belief in a single God.
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
A religion with more than one god.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims.
Separate religious body; faction; group of people with common beliefs within a larger group.
The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia.
A blending of two or more religious traditions.
A religion that has originality and is not modernized.
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, unique identity with localized culture groups not absorbed into modern society, and close ties to nature.
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
A social structure in which classes are determined by heredity.
Place or space people infuse with religious meaning.
Identify the following characteristics of all major religions:
-Point of origin
-Method of diffusion
-Found mainly in India
-The four sacred texts are ancient hymns called Vedas, but few hindus historically could read.
-Often found near coastlines and river bands where most sacred sites are located.
-Many,many festivals, often surrounding harvest or spring or the birth of Gods.
-Originated near modern nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama.
-Spread originally into India and Sri Lanka by Magadhan Empire.
-Indian traders brought it to China in the 1st century AD.
-By the 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan.
-14 million adherents
-Pentateuch: The first five books of the old testament.
-Sects: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform
-Israel: Homeland for jewish people, created in 1948, conflicts between Israel and palestine.
-2 billion adherents make it the most practiced in the world.
-Originated in Bethlehem (8-4 BC) and Jerusalem (AD 30) with Jesus Christ.
-Spread by missionaries and the Roman Empire. (Constantine AD 313).
-It is the most practiced religion in Africa today.
-1 billion adherents
-Originated in Saudi Arabia (Mecca and Medina) around AD 600.
-Spread originally by muslim armies to North Africa and the near East.
-Sunni (83%)- Found throughout the muslim world.
-Shi'ite-Mainly found in Iran (90%). (15%) in Pakistan. (65%) Iraq.
Map the "religious regions" of the United states.
-Roman Catholics (Far west, far east)
Discuss the major branches, their origins, and the current distribution of the following religions:
The four major branches of religion are: Christianity, Islam, buddhism, and Hinduism. Christianity originated in Jerusalem and Bethlehem with Jesus Christ. It is currently distributed around the entire north hemisphere. Mainly in Europe and North America. Islam Originated in Mecca. Its current distribution is most of northern Africa and the middle eastern countries such as Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. Buddhism Originated in Northern nepal and is currently distributed around east China, Japan, Korea, and some parts of south west China. Hinduism Originated in India and has pretty much stayed there. Hinduism is found predominantly in India.
Distinguish between ethnic and universalizing religions:
-Different holy sites
-Different holy days
-Different methods of diffusion
-Has meaning in a particular place only.
-Unknown source or origin.
-Tightly packed around where could be the origin.
-Holidays are based on local climate and agricultural practice.
-Appeal to people everywhere.
-Individual founder (prophet).
-Message diffused widely (missionaries).
-Followers distributed widely.
-Holidays based on events in founder's life.
Describe ways in which the environment influences religion and ways in which religions affect the natural environment.
-Judeo-christians bury family members because of religious beliefs.
-Hindus and Buddhists often do not bury but cremate.
Relationship with nature:
-Role of religion in domination of Earth.
Discuss various specific religious conflicts around the world in terms of the following:
-Religion v politics
-Religion v religion---Interfaith conflicts
-Religion v religion---intrafaith conflicts
-Religion v secularism
-Religion v Politics: In the United States there is a law allowing the freedom to a religion. This allows any citizen of the United States the right to chose their own religion. In some countries this law doesn't exist, and some governments greatly enforce the idea of a single religion.
-interfaith conflicts: This is the most common. This form of conflict happens when two groups of a completely different religion disagree on the way the other interprets a god(s).
-Intrafaith conflicts: Different regins or groups of a religion may have different ways of interpreting the religion based off of their ideas and surroundings.
-Secularism conflicts: This also happens a lot when someone who has no religious beliefs argues with someone who is very religious.