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lololol cause the exam is tomorrow


the study of the behavior of humans and animals


anything that a subject does involving action or stimulation


the analysis of a set of facts and their relation with one another


assumption that can be tested




measurement/results of experiment

Independent Variable

conditions the researcher decides on; factor

Dependent Variable

what you measure; result

Positive Reinforcer

increases likelihood of a behavior by adding something

Negative Reinforcer

increases likelihood of a behavior by taking something away


anything that decreases a behavior

case study

study of a single subject

control subject

don't have IV apply to them

Yoked Control

one subject's behavior will effect another subject's


probability that a result will occur at ranom


relationship between two variables

Rene Decartes

Dualism-I think therefore I am

Herman von Helmoltz

physiology and psychology, the scientific method, hypothesis testing, nerve impulses and neural communication

William James

functionalism-principles of psychology (1890)- based on natural selection

Sigmund Freud

Intro to Psychoanalysis (1917); neuroses, hypnosis, the unconscious

Ivan Pavlov

conditioned reflex, classical conditioning, behavior modification

John Watson

Behaviorist Manifesto (1913), life and the behavior of living organisms could be explained entirely by chemistry and physics without recourse to a supposed "vital force"; scientific approach: study of the relationship between environmental events and the behavior of the organism

B.F. Skinner

Harvard behaviorist-operant coniditioning chamber (Skinner Box); Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Concept of Neuron

Camillo Golgi and Ramon y Cajal (staining)

Discovery of the first neurotransmitter

Otto Loewi- frog hearts- discovered acetylcholine released from one heart could slow the other heart

Cell Soma

Body of neuron-contains the nucleus


Often concentrated on the cell soma- receive infrmation


Transports materials and conducts impulse to nerve terminal where transmitter is released


structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).

Presynaptic neuron

where neurotransmitter is released


stored in synaptic vesicles

Postsynaptic neuron

where neurotransmitter signal is received


Binds to receptors to produce its effects

Action Potential

Dendrites receive incoming signals that produce postsynaptic potentials (ISPs, ESPs)
Potentials build up to a threshold to produce an action potential
Impulse travels down the axon to the nerve terminal to produce neurotransmitter releases


Major inhibitory transmitter in the brain: ISPs keep brain cells quiet/under control/ at rease

A boost in GABA: Alcohol, sleeping pils , general anesthetics


Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain: ESPs
too much glutamate: seizures
not enough: schizophrenia


initiation of voluntary motor sequences; motivated behaviors

Boost: attention/alertness- cocaine, adderall
Not Enough: Parkinson's disease
Block: treatment of scizophrenia


behavioral inhibition
Boost: SSRIs as antidepressants
Low: Migrane
Controls impulsivity


selective attention, signal to noise ratio
fight or flight response
"Beta Blockers" treate cardiac and hypertension issues


Cognitive & Memory
-Major regulator of autonomic functions
Boost: Attempted treatment for Alzheimer's
Block: Curare

Major Brain Subdivisons

Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

Major Brain Lobes

Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Frontal


Cerebrum- sensory, motor, executive functions
Hypothalamus- hormone regulation
Thalamus- relate center for sensory and motor functions


Primitive arousal system (Receiving end of cell soma)
Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin


Pons & Medulla and Cerebellum

Occipital Lobe

"primary" visual processing

Parietal Lobe

sensory processing

Temporal Lobe

"primary" auditory, fear/emotion (amygdala), memory consolidation (hippocampus)

Frontal Lobe

Motor, judgement, strategy, intentions, social cognition


The relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our perception of those timuli


Act of putting objects together in categories to more easily process information based on proximity and similarity


an increase in probability that a conditioned stimulus will illicit a conditioned response


Decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations


Decrease of a conditioned stimulus over time

Second-Order Conditioning

After original conditioning a second CS follows the first CS many time, eventually the second CS will elicit the same response as the first CS

Passive/Classical Conditioning

Pavlov's Dogs/Little Albert

Operant/Instrumental Conditioning

Reinforce after appropriate response

Law of Effect

Performance is strengthened if it's followed by a reward and weakened if it's not

Garcia Effect

the aversion to a CS can occur after just a single trial and over a large delay


A conditioned response can also be elicited by stimuli that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus

Ratio Schedules

Reinforcer is presented after a number of responses
Fixed Ratio- reward for amount of productivity
Variable Ratio- steady rates of behavior over time

Interval Schedules

Reinforcer is presented after behavior is done over time.
Fixed Interval- Measuring interval behavior of reward
Variable Interval- steady intervals of behavior


Entering Items into Memory


Retaining Items in memory


Recovering items from memory

Sensory Memory

Large Capacity from 0.5 seconds (iconic) to 2-3 seconds (echoic). Briefly stores impressions so they overlap and appear continuous.

Short Term Memory

2-7 Memories from 30 seconds. Temporary storage for information in use; "working memory"

Long Term Memory

Limitless capacity; stores huge quantities of information, experiences and skills

Procedural Memory

Memory of Skills

Declarative Memory

Ability to recall memory

Episodic Memory

Autobiographical memories

Semantic Memory

Your knowledge base memories

Photographic Memory


5 Types of Memories

Procedural, Declarative, Episodic, Semantic, Photographic

3 "Core" Memories

Sensory, Short Term, Long Term

Four Types of Brain Waves


BETA Waves

alert, excited, active- 13-30 hz


relaxed, "in class nap", closed eyes- 8-13 hz


Drowsy, "in bed" nap time; 4-8 hz


Deep Sleep; up to 4 hz.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

measures brain voltage- reflects activity of millions of neurons- principally measures activity of neurons in cortex

Sleep Stages

Stages 1, 2, 3 and REM

Stage 1 Sleep

beginning of sleep- THETA

Stage 2 Sleep

similar to and just after REM- dreaming is rare

Stage 3 Sleep

"slow wave sleep"- DELTA- difficult to arouse- dreams are less vivid and memorable then REM

REM Sleep

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep- near paralysis- happens every four hours of sleep for 1 hour- dreams are vivid when awoken


Transient- week or less of insomnia
Acute- A month or less of insomnia
Chronic- More than a month without regular sleep


controls daily cycle- causes drowsiness- secreted by pineal gland


stress hormone- peaks at 8 AM

3 stages of Prenatal Development

Germinal stage- first 2 weeks
Embryonic stage- weeks 3-6
Fetal stage- 2 mo to birth

Erik Erikson's 8 Stage Theory

1- Year 1- Predictable and supportive?
2- Years 2-3- Trust myself or others?
3- Years 4-6- Am I good or bad?
4- Years 6-11- My competence and worth?
5- Years 11-18- Who am I? Where am I going?
6- Years 18-35- Share my life with others?
7- Years 35-60- Production of value?
8- Years 60-Death- Have I lived a full life?

Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

1- 0-2 yrs: Sensorimotor- object permanence- understand an object
2- 2-7 yrs: Pre-operational including symbolic thought and "centration" (limitation)- relation of objects to other objects
3- 7-11 yrs: Concrete operational- basic ideas of the objects use
4- 11 and up: Formal operational- abstract reasoning and problem solving- point of the object and HOW to use the object in a new or purposeful way.


study of how sounds and symbols are translated to meaning as show in behavior


Basic structural sounds ("s" and "sh")


Smallest unit of meaning ("I", "A", "s" for plural)


Grammar- putting words together


Meaning- putting language and syntax together to invoke meaning from the grammar

Language Acquisition Device

Noam Chomsky- ability at a young age to learn any language- biological apparatus to understand language- universal grammar


distinctive patterns of feelings thoughts and actions


a person's general tendencies

Big 5 Traits

1- openness
2- conscientiousness
3- confidence/outgoing
4- agreeableness
5- neuroticism

Psychodynamic approach

Freud- way of categorizing personality traits of people


unconscious, instinctual drive for personal satisfaction


conscious, organized effort to fulfill "id"


representative of our internalized rules- what we want and how we react to get it.


internal conflict of ego and leads to defense mechanisms

Defense Mechanisms

1- Displacement- directing conflict to elsewhere
2- Reaction formation- substituting the emotion with the opposite
3- Rationalization- finding an acceptable framework
4- Projection- attributing one's desires to someone else


Obsessive compulsive disorder- obsessions and compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use that cause major distress or interfere with everyday life.


Narcissistic Disorder- expecting special treatment, vanity, exaggerated self-importance, lacking of empathy


Antisocial Behavior Disorder- no superego, impulsive, easily frustrated, paradoxically socially skillful


Borderline Personality Disorder- lacks secure sense of self, relies on others to supply SOS, rejection leads to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors

Social Psychology

The study of how social influences affect behavior.

Social Perception

The study of how we perceive the qualities of others.

Primacy Effect

Importance of first impressions

Person Schemas

Assumptions about a group or class of people, and categorizing people accordingly

Implicitly Personality Theories

Cantor & Mischel, 1979
Assuming one trait goes with another
A major or central trait influences a person's other traits

Attribution Theories

Heider, 1946
Behavior is either DISPOSITIONAL (internal) or SITUATION (external)
Difference seen in gender
-Dispositional- ability
-Situational- effort

Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency to overestimate dispositional factors for others

False Consensus Brian

Assumption that others share your attitudes

Illusion of Control

Belief that we can control events that we can't. (Gambling, for example)


Tendency to modify behavior to be consistent with that of others
The Asch Experiments (1955)- only 25% wouldn't cave in to social pressure


Tendency to modify behavior in response to orders from authorities
Milgram's experiments (1963)- 65% of subjects were complicit with commands


The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Diagnosing psychological illness- 4th Edition

Fixe "axes" of mental illness

1- Clinical syndromes: depression, eating disorders
2- Mental retardation & personality disorders
3- Medical conditions that effect behavior- chronic pain
4- Social and environmental issues- legal and family problems
5- Global assessment- how the individual is coping

Panic Attack

Characterized as bodily symptoms: labored-breathing, choking, dizziness, sweating.

Frequently associated with agoraphobia- fear of places without escapes or aid


Irrational fear of something that is not normally feared by others (snakes, bees and spiders)

Unipolar Disorder

12% of men and 25% of women
(also called Recurent Depressive Disorder)
-Partly genetic
-Depressed mood
-Low energy

Bipolar Disorder

Lifetime prevalence= 1%

Bipolar 1 Disorder

One of more manic episodes
Abnormally elevated irritable mood
Abnormally elevated energy level or activity

Bipolar 2 Disorder

One or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episodes


Excessive or Abnormal Behavior

Absence of normal Behavior
-blunted affect- lack of emotion
-anhedonia- lack of enjoyment
-asocial behavior
-catatonic motor behavior


-Non-biological, non-invasive approach to improvement
-Based largely on Freudian psychoanalysis

Cognitive Therapies

-Attempts to change what patient "thinks"
-Premise that behavioral disorders arise from distorted perceptions or cognitions


-Drugs such as SSRIs (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors): widest perscribed
-Boosts serotnonin

Review of Neurotransmitters for Psychopharmacology

BOOST- Serotonin- SSRI/Norepinephrine: antidepressants
BOOST- GABA: sleeping pills
BOOST- Dopamine: Adderall
BLOCK- Dopamine: Treat Schizophrenia

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