135 terms


lololol cause the exam is tomorrow
the study of the behavior of humans and animals
anything that a subject does involving action or stimulation
the analysis of a set of facts and their relation with one another
assumption that can be tested
measurement/results of experiment
Independent Variable
conditions the researcher decides on; factor
Dependent Variable
what you measure; result
Positive Reinforcer
increases likelihood of a behavior by adding something
Negative Reinforcer
increases likelihood of a behavior by taking something away
anything that decreases a behavior
case study
study of a single subject
control subject
don't have IV apply to them
Yoked Control
one subject's behavior will effect another subject's
probability that a result will occur at ranom
relationship between two variables
Rene Decartes
Dualism-I think therefore I am
Herman von Helmoltz
physiology and psychology, the scientific method, hypothesis testing, nerve impulses and neural communication
William James
functionalism-principles of psychology (1890)- based on natural selection
Sigmund Freud
Intro to Psychoanalysis (1917); neuroses, hypnosis, the unconscious
Ivan Pavlov
conditioned reflex, classical conditioning, behavior modification
John Watson
Behaviorist Manifesto (1913), life and the behavior of living organisms could be explained entirely by chemistry and physics without recourse to a supposed "vital force"; scientific approach: study of the relationship between environmental events and the behavior of the organism
B.F. Skinner
Harvard behaviorist-operant coniditioning chamber (Skinner Box); Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Concept of Neuron
Camillo Golgi and Ramon y Cajal (staining)
Discovery of the first neurotransmitter
Otto Loewi- frog hearts- discovered acetylcholine released from one heart could slow the other heart
Cell Soma
Body of neuron-contains the nucleus
Often concentrated on the cell soma- receive infrmation
Transports materials and conducts impulse to nerve terminal where transmitter is released
structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).
Presynaptic neuron
where neurotransmitter is released
stored in synaptic vesicles
Postsynaptic neuron
where neurotransmitter signal is received
Binds to receptors to produce its effects
Action Potential
Dendrites receive incoming signals that produce postsynaptic potentials (ISPs, ESPs)
Potentials build up to a threshold to produce an action potential
Impulse travels down the axon to the nerve terminal to produce neurotransmitter releases
Major inhibitory transmitter in the brain: ISPs keep brain cells quiet/under control/ at rease

A boost in GABA: Alcohol, sleeping pils , general anesthetics
Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain: ESPs
too much glutamate: seizures
not enough: schizophrenia
initiation of voluntary motor sequences; motivated behaviors

Boost: attention/alertness- cocaine, adderall
Not Enough: Parkinson's disease
Block: treatment of scizophrenia
behavioral inhibition
Boost: SSRIs as antidepressants
Low: Migrane
Controls impulsivity
selective attention, signal to noise ratio
fight or flight response
"Beta Blockers" treate cardiac and hypertension issues
Cognitive & Memory
-Major regulator of autonomic functions
Boost: Attempted treatment for Alzheimer's
Block: Curare
Major Brain Subdivisons
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
Major Brain Lobes
Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Frontal
Cerebrum- sensory, motor, executive functions
Hypothalamus- hormone regulation
Thalamus- relate center for sensory and motor functions
Primitive arousal system (Receiving end of cell soma)
Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
Pons & Medulla and Cerebellum
Occipital Lobe
"primary" visual processing
Parietal Lobe
sensory processing
Temporal Lobe
"primary" auditory, fear/emotion (amygdala), memory consolidation (hippocampus)
Frontal Lobe
Motor, judgement, strategy, intentions, social cognition
The relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our perception of those timuli
Act of putting objects together in categories to more easily process information based on proximity and similarity
an increase in probability that a conditioned stimulus will illicit a conditioned response
Decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Decrease of a conditioned stimulus over time
Second-Order Conditioning
After original conditioning a second CS follows the first CS many time, eventually the second CS will elicit the same response as the first CS
Passive/Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Dogs/Little Albert
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
Reinforce after appropriate response
Law of Effect
Performance is strengthened if it's followed by a reward and weakened if it's not
Garcia Effect
the aversion to a CS can occur after just a single trial and over a large delay
A conditioned response can also be elicited by stimuli that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Ratio Schedules
Reinforcer is presented after a number of responses
Fixed Ratio- reward for amount of productivity
Variable Ratio- steady rates of behavior over time
Interval Schedules
Reinforcer is presented after behavior is done over time.
Fixed Interval- Measuring interval behavior of reward
Variable Interval- steady intervals of behavior
Entering Items into Memory
Retaining Items in memory
Recovering items from memory
Sensory Memory
Large Capacity from 0.5 seconds (iconic) to 2-3 seconds (echoic). Briefly stores impressions so they overlap and appear continuous.
Short Term Memory
2-7 Memories from 30 seconds. Temporary storage for information in use; "working memory"
Long Term Memory
Limitless capacity; stores huge quantities of information, experiences and skills
Procedural Memory
Memory of Skills
Declarative Memory
Ability to recall memory
Episodic Memory
Autobiographical memories
Semantic Memory
Your knowledge base memories
Photographic Memory
5 Types of Memories
Procedural, Declarative, Episodic, Semantic, Photographic
3 "Core" Memories
Sensory, Short Term, Long Term
Four Types of Brain Waves
BETA Waves
alert, excited, active- 13-30 hz
relaxed, "in class nap", closed eyes- 8-13 hz
Drowsy, "in bed" nap time; 4-8 hz
Deep Sleep; up to 4 hz.
Electroencephalography (EEG)
measures brain voltage- reflects activity of millions of neurons- principally measures activity of neurons in cortex
Sleep Stages
Stages 1, 2, 3 and REM
Stage 1 Sleep
beginning of sleep- THETA
Stage 2 Sleep
similar to and just after REM- dreaming is rare
Stage 3 Sleep
"slow wave sleep"- DELTA- difficult to arouse- dreams are less vivid and memorable then REM
REM Sleep
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep- near paralysis- happens every four hours of sleep for 1 hour- dreams are vivid when awoken
Transient- week or less of insomnia
Acute- A month or less of insomnia
Chronic- More than a month without regular sleep
controls daily cycle- causes drowsiness- secreted by pineal gland
stress hormone- peaks at 8 AM
3 stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal stage- first 2 weeks
Embryonic stage- weeks 3-6
Fetal stage- 2 mo to birth
Erik Erikson's 8 Stage Theory
1- Year 1- Predictable and supportive?
2- Years 2-3- Trust myself or others?
3- Years 4-6- Am I good or bad?
4- Years 6-11- My competence and worth?
5- Years 11-18- Who am I? Where am I going?
6- Years 18-35- Share my life with others?
7- Years 35-60- Production of value?
8- Years 60-Death- Have I lived a full life?
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1- 0-2 yrs: Sensorimotor- object permanence- understand an object
2- 2-7 yrs: Pre-operational including symbolic thought and "centration" (limitation)- relation of objects to other objects
3- 7-11 yrs: Concrete operational- basic ideas of the objects use
4- 11 and up: Formal operational- abstract reasoning and problem solving- point of the object and HOW to use the object in a new or purposeful way.
study of how sounds and symbols are translated to meaning as show in behavior
Basic structural sounds ("s" and "sh")
Smallest unit of meaning ("I", "A", "s" for plural)
Grammar- putting words together
Meaning- putting language and syntax together to invoke meaning from the grammar
Language Acquisition Device
Noam Chomsky- ability at a young age to learn any language- biological apparatus to understand language- universal grammar
distinctive patterns of feelings thoughts and actions
a person's general tendencies
Big 5 Traits
1- openness
2- conscientiousness
3- confidence/outgoing
4- agreeableness
5- neuroticism
Psychodynamic approach
Freud- way of categorizing personality traits of people
unconscious, instinctual drive for personal satisfaction
conscious, organized effort to fulfill "id"
representative of our internalized rules- what we want and how we react to get it.
internal conflict of ego and leads to defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
1- Displacement- directing conflict to elsewhere
2- Reaction formation- substituting the emotion with the opposite
3- Rationalization- finding an acceptable framework
4- Projection- attributing one's desires to someone else
Obsessive compulsive disorder- obsessions and compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use that cause major distress or interfere with everyday life.
Narcissistic Disorder- expecting special treatment, vanity, exaggerated self-importance, lacking of empathy
Antisocial Behavior Disorder- no superego, impulsive, easily frustrated, paradoxically socially skillful
Borderline Personality Disorder- lacks secure sense of self, relies on others to supply SOS, rejection leads to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors
Social Psychology
The study of how social influences affect behavior.
Social Perception
The study of how we perceive the qualities of others.
Primacy Effect
Importance of first impressions
Person Schemas
Assumptions about a group or class of people, and categorizing people accordingly
Implicitly Personality Theories
Cantor & Mischel, 1979
Assuming one trait goes with another
A major or central trait influences a person's other traits
Attribution Theories
Heider, 1946
Behavior is either DISPOSITIONAL (internal) or SITUATION (external)
Difference seen in gender
-Dispositional- ability
-Situational- effort
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overestimate dispositional factors for others
False Consensus Brian
Assumption that others share your attitudes
Illusion of Control
Belief that we can control events that we can't. (Gambling, for example)
Tendency to modify behavior to be consistent with that of others
The Asch Experiments (1955)- only 25% wouldn't cave in to social pressure
Tendency to modify behavior in response to orders from authorities
Milgram's experiments (1963)- 65% of subjects were complicit with commands
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Diagnosing psychological illness- 4th Edition
Fixe "axes" of mental illness
1- Clinical syndromes: depression, eating disorders
2- Mental retardation & personality disorders
3- Medical conditions that effect behavior- chronic pain
4- Social and environmental issues- legal and family problems
5- Global assessment- how the individual is coping
Panic Attack
Characterized as bodily symptoms: labored-breathing, choking, dizziness, sweating.

Frequently associated with agoraphobia- fear of places without escapes or aid
Irrational fear of something that is not normally feared by others (snakes, bees and spiders)
Unipolar Disorder
12% of men and 25% of women
(also called Recurent Depressive Disorder)
-Partly genetic
-Depressed mood
-Low energy
Bipolar Disorder
Lifetime prevalence= 1%
Bipolar 1 Disorder
One of more manic episodes
Abnormally elevated irritable mood
Abnormally elevated energy level or activity
Bipolar 2 Disorder
One or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episodes
Excessive or Abnormal Behavior

Absence of normal Behavior
-blunted affect- lack of emotion
-anhedonia- lack of enjoyment
-asocial behavior
-catatonic motor behavior
-Non-biological, non-invasive approach to improvement
-Based largely on Freudian psychoanalysis
Cognitive Therapies
-Attempts to change what patient "thinks"
-Premise that behavioral disorders arise from distorted perceptions or cognitions
-Drugs such as SSRIs (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors): widest perscribed
-Boosts serotnonin
Review of Neurotransmitters for Psychopharmacology
BOOST- Serotonin- SSRI/Norepinephrine: antidepressants
BOOST- GABA: sleeping pills
BOOST- Dopamine: Adderall
BLOCK- Dopamine: Treat Schizophrenia