Herman von Helmoltz
physiology and psychology, the scientific method, hypothesis testing, nerve impulses and neural communication
Behaviorist Manifesto (1913), life and the behavior of living organisms could be explained entirely by chemistry and physics without recourse to a supposed "vital force"; scientific approach: study of the relationship between environmental events and the behavior of the organism
Harvard behaviorist-operant coniditioning chamber (Skinner Box); Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Discovery of the first neurotransmitter
Otto Loewi- frog hearts- discovered acetylcholine released from one heart could slow the other heart
structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).
Dendrites receive incoming signals that produce postsynaptic potentials (ISPs, ESPs)
Potentials build up to a threshold to produce an action potential
Impulse travels down the axon to the nerve terminal to produce neurotransmitter releases
Major inhibitory transmitter in the brain: ISPs keep brain cells quiet/under control/ at rease
A boost in GABA: Alcohol, sleeping pils , general anesthetics
Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain: ESPs
too much glutamate: seizures
not enough: schizophrenia
initiation of voluntary motor sequences; motivated behaviors
Boost: attention/alertness- cocaine, adderall
Not Enough: Parkinson's disease
Block: treatment of scizophrenia
selective attention, signal to noise ratio
fight or flight response
"Beta Blockers" treate cardiac and hypertension issues
Cognitive & Memory
-Major regulator of autonomic functions
Boost: Attempted treatment for Alzheimer's
Cerebrum- sensory, motor, executive functions
Hypothalamus- hormone regulation
Thalamus- relate center for sensory and motor functions
The relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our perception of those timuli
Act of putting objects together in categories to more easily process information based on proximity and similarity
an increase in probability that a conditioned stimulus will illicit a conditioned response
After original conditioning a second CS follows the first CS many time, eventually the second CS will elicit the same response as the first CS
A conditioned response can also be elicited by stimuli that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Reinforcer is presented after a number of responses
Fixed Ratio- reward for amount of productivity
Variable Ratio- steady rates of behavior over time
Reinforcer is presented after behavior is done over time.
Fixed Interval- Measuring interval behavior of reward
Variable Interval- steady intervals of behavior
Large Capacity from 0.5 seconds (iconic) to 2-3 seconds (echoic). Briefly stores impressions so they overlap and appear continuous.
Short Term Memory
2-7 Memories from 30 seconds. Temporary storage for information in use; "working memory"
measures brain voltage- reflects activity of millions of neurons- principally measures activity of neurons in cortex
Stage 3 Sleep
"slow wave sleep"- DELTA- difficult to arouse- dreams are less vivid and memorable then REM
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep- near paralysis- happens every four hours of sleep for 1 hour- dreams are vivid when awoken
Transient- week or less of insomnia
Acute- A month or less of insomnia
Chronic- More than a month without regular sleep
3 stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal stage- first 2 weeks
Embryonic stage- weeks 3-6
Fetal stage- 2 mo to birth
Erik Erikson's 8 Stage Theory
1- Year 1- Predictable and supportive?
2- Years 2-3- Trust myself or others?
3- Years 4-6- Am I good or bad?
4- Years 6-11- My competence and worth?
5- Years 11-18- Who am I? Where am I going?
6- Years 18-35- Share my life with others?
7- Years 35-60- Production of value?
8- Years 60-Death- Have I lived a full life?
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1- 0-2 yrs: Sensorimotor- object permanence- understand an object
2- 2-7 yrs: Pre-operational including symbolic thought and "centration" (limitation)- relation of objects to other objects
3- 7-11 yrs: Concrete operational- basic ideas of the objects use
4- 11 and up: Formal operational- abstract reasoning and problem solving- point of the object and HOW to use the object in a new or purposeful way.
Language Acquisition Device
Noam Chomsky- ability at a young age to learn any language- biological apparatus to understand language- universal grammar
Big 5 Traits
1- Displacement- directing conflict to elsewhere
2- Reaction formation- substituting the emotion with the opposite
3- Rationalization- finding an acceptable framework
4- Projection- attributing one's desires to someone else
Obsessive compulsive disorder- obsessions and compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use that cause major distress or interfere with everyday life.
Narcissistic Disorder- expecting special treatment, vanity, exaggerated self-importance, lacking of empathy
Antisocial Behavior Disorder- no superego, impulsive, easily frustrated, paradoxically socially skillful
Borderline Personality Disorder- lacks secure sense of self, relies on others to supply SOS, rejection leads to impulsive and self-destructive behaviors
Implicitly Personality Theories
Cantor & Mischel, 1979
Assuming one trait goes with another
A major or central trait influences a person's other traits
Behavior is either DISPOSITIONAL (internal) or SITUATION (external)
Difference seen in gender
Tendency to modify behavior to be consistent with that of others
The Asch Experiments (1955)- only 25% wouldn't cave in to social pressure
Tendency to modify behavior in response to orders from authorities
Milgram's experiments (1963)- 65% of subjects were complicit with commands
Fixe "axes" of mental illness
1- Clinical syndromes: depression, eating disorders
2- Mental retardation & personality disorders
3- Medical conditions that effect behavior- chronic pain
4- Social and environmental issues- legal and family problems
5- Global assessment- how the individual is coping
Characterized as bodily symptoms: labored-breathing, choking, dizziness, sweating.
Frequently associated with agoraphobia- fear of places without escapes or aid
Irrational fear of something that is not normally feared by others (snakes, bees and spiders)
12% of men and 25% of women
(also called Recurent Depressive Disorder)
Bipolar 1 Disorder
One of more manic episodes
Abnormally elevated irritable mood
Abnormally elevated energy level or activity
Excessive or Abnormal Behavior
Absence of normal Behavior
-blunted affect- lack of emotion
-anhedonia- lack of enjoyment
-catatonic motor behavior
-Non-biological, non-invasive approach to improvement
-Based largely on Freudian psychoanalysis
-Attempts to change what patient "thinks"
-Premise that behavioral disorders arise from distorted perceptions or cognitions
-Drugs such as SSRIs (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors): widest perscribed