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European powers favored a civil war in the United States because

war would weaken the United States' power in the Western Hemisphere

Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was learned that

Lincoln had order supplies sent to the fort

Many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until

the South attacked Fort Sumter

The Border States offered all of the following advantages except

shipbuilding facilities

Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery

revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies

In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union

waged war on them and herded them onto reservations

To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to

fight the invading Union army to a draw

The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its


Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to

the South's rickety transportation system

To find effective high-level commanders, the Union

used trial and error

A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was

intervention from Britain and France

The South believed that the British would come to its aid because

Britain was dependent on Southern cotton

France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico

because the United States threatened to send soldiers to force France to leave

As a leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis

defied rather than led public opinion

The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North

had a long-established and fully recognized government

As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because

of the South's emphasis on states' rights

The Union's establishment of the National Banking System

was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836

As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy

emerged more prosperous than ever before

During the Civil War, women in the North

had new opportunities opened to them in industry

Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included

control of the seas, more banks, factories, railroads, and people

President Lincoln's loose interpretation of civil liberties during the Civil War

resulted in the suspension of the privilege of habeas corpus, led to the arrest of several critical newspaper editors, and was defended by him as necessary to save the Union

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