159 terms

Mohan Winter Exam 2011

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True
True/False: The delegates to the Continental Congress agreed that the new nation needed a (republican) form of government.
False, People
T/F: In the debate between "large" and "small" states, the large states were those with the most (land area).
True
T/F: Under The Constitution, (delegated) powers are those that are specifically held by the national government.
True
T/F: John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton were prominent (Federalists).
False, 3/5s
T/F: Delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention agreed to count (3/4s) of a state's slaves as part of its population.
False, checks and balances
T/F: The President can veto acts of Congress, but Congress can override a veto by a two-thirds vote; this is an example of (the division of powers).
True
T/F: (Antifederalists) were concerned that a strong centralized government might abuse its power.
debts they owed to creditors
Shays's Rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced problems from __________.
The nation needed a stronger central government.
Shays's Rebellion contributed to the belief among political leaders that __________.
Checks and balances.
The System that maintains the separation of powers among the branches of the federal government is called __________.
Patrick Henry
All the following men wrote letters contained in "The Federalist Papers" except who? John Jay, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry
Constitution
The Executive Branch of government was first established in the _________.
Nine
The number of states needed to ratify the Constitution before it could go into effect was __________.
Antifederalists
Adding a bill of rights to the Constitution was largely supported by the __________.
Protect personal liberties
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to ___________.
False, legislative
T/F: Article 1, the longest article in the Constitution, details the powers of and restrictions on the (executive) branch.
False, Representatives
T/F: The number of (senators) a state has is based on the size of that state's population.
True
T/F: It is possible for a (president) to be elected despite recieving fewer popular votes than an opponent.
False, for 14 years
T/F: The president must be a US resident (since birth).
True
T/F: The (Elastic Clause) allows the legislature to expand its powers as needed to execute the powers specifically listed in the Constitution.
True
T/F: The ability of Congress to override a president's veto is an example of (checks and balances).
True
T/F: The (First Amendment) guarantees the right to freedom of speech.
Executive, legislative, judiciary
The three main branches of the US government are ____________.
The vice-president of the USA
The person who serves as the president of the Senate is also ___________.
Only when the Senate vote is tied.
The president of the Senate votes ___________.
more than 1/2
In order for the Senate or House to vote on a bill, how many members must be present?
Each house must pass the bill by two-thirds majority
For Congress to override a presidential veto of a bill, ____________.
Becomes law
If the president neither signs no returns a bill to Congress two weeks before a scheduled adjournment, that bill _____________.
Since Birth
The president must have been a US citizen __________.
The number of senators and representatives that state has in the US Congress.
The number of electors a state has in the electoral college equals ______.
President
The commander-in-chief of the army and navy is the ______.
Two
Since the adoption of the Constitution, the number of presidents impeached is __________.
Life
A federal judge's term in office lasts for ____________.
Congress
New States may be admitted to the United States only if they are approved by ________.
the Constitution.
The "supreme law of the land" is __________.
swear to uphold the Constitution
For a person to serve as a member of Congress, he or she must _________.
Vote
Each of the following is a right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights except the right to ___________. Assemble, vote, be tried publicly, voice an opinion.
Refusing to testify against herself in court.
If an accused woman "pleads the Fifth Amendment" she is ____________.
1st Amendment
Religious and Political Freedoms
2nd Amendment
Right to Keep and Bear Arms
3rd Amendment
Quartering of Troops
4th Amendment
Illegal Searches and Siezures
9th Amendment
Rights of the People
10th Amendment
Powers of the State
False, Stamp Act Congress
T/F: The (committees of correspondence) was set up by the colonies to formulate a response to the Stamp Act.
True
T/F: The colonies' response to the (Intolerable Acts) was to assemble the First Continental Congress.
False, Lexington and Concord
T/F: In spring of 1775, British troops marched to (Bunker Hill) to seize Stockpiles of firearms and gunpowder.
True
T/F: The colonists' last attempt to avoid war with Britain was the sending of the (Olive Branch Petition).
False, Loyalists
T/F: Colonists who displayed loyalty to Great Britain and King George were called (Patriots).
True
T/F: (Friedrich von Steuben) trained American troops at Valley Forge to become an effective fighting force.
False, Mississippi River
T/F: The Treaty of Paris signed in September 1783 ended the war and set the western boundary of the US at the (Ohio River).
True
T/F: (Egalitarianism) is a belief in the equality of people.
The Stamp Act
The Formation of the Sons of Liberty was a response to ____________.
Samuel Adams
Which of the following men helped to found the Sons of Liberty? George Washington, Samuel Adams, William Franklin, John Jay.
the Boston Massacre
In Which incident did Crispus Attucks play a significant role?
Lexington and Concord
During which event did the first fighting between redcoats and minutemen occur?
Second Continental Congress
The body that would serve as the de facto government of the colonies during the Revolution War was the ______.
John Locke's
Whos concepts did Jefferson draw upon as he drafted the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense".
The document that was crucial in changing public opinion to support independence was ________.
Food and ammunition.
During the Revolutionary War, what did the Continental Army lack?
Trenton, NJ
The Continental Army scored its first and much-needed victory at __________.
the Winter at Valley Forge
The low point of the Revolutionary War for the Continental Army was __________.
American troops would gain reinforcements and supplies.
The involvement of the Marquis de Lafayette in the war meant that __________.
The Treaty of Paris
Which event confirmed American independence and set the boundaries of the new nation?
Should the United States become a republic?
Before adopting the Articles of Confederation, the Continental Congress wrestled with all of the following questions EXCEPT ___________.
the state's total population
Under the Articles of Confederation, each state's power in Congress was based on ___________.
establish requirements for admitting new states to the Union
One of the accomplishments of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was to ______________.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The standards for admitting new states to the Union were set down in the _______________.
determine a state's representation in Congress
The Great Compromise was an agreement about how to _____________.
two years
A member of the House of Representatives is elected to a term of ______________.
six years
A U.S. Senator serves for a term of __________.
an ambassador to a foreign country
The Senate must approve of the president's choice for each of the following offices except that of _________________.
Vice-president, Speaker of the House, President pro-tempore
Which of the following is the correct line of succession to the Presidency?
Eli Whitney
He invented a new way of removing cotton seeds from the fibers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
In this case, the Court ruled that only Congress had the authority to regulate interstate trade.
nationalism
This is placing the interests of the nation above those of one's region or state.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In this case, the Court ruled that states could not place taxes on the national bank.
sectionalism
This is placing the interest of one's region or state above those of the nation.
Democratic-Republican
This political party was formed by Andrew Jackson after his defeat for president in 1824.
Woecester v. Georgia
In this case, the Court declared the Cherokee nation a distinct political unit not bound by state law.
Daniel Webster
In a series of famous debates against Senator Robert Hayne, he defended the tariff and attacked states' rights.
Bank of the United States
Andrew Jackson and Nicholas Biddle fought over this.
Martin Van Buren
Elected president in 1836, he inherited the problems created by Jackson's economic policies.
Whigs
In 1840, they ran William Henry Harrison as their candidate for president and won against Martin Van Buren.
John Tyler
This president was referred to as "His Accidency", since he came to power through the unexpected death of President Harrison.
Spoils System
The policy by which a newly elected president appoints his friends and supporters to positions within the government is known as __________.
Cherokee
The "Trail of Tears" refers to the forced relocation of the _____________ to new lands in Oklahoma.
Maine
As part of the Missouri Compromise, _________ was admitted to the Union as a free state.
South Carolina
In 1832, _________ declared a series of tariffs unconstitutional and threatened to secede from the Union.
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's first vice-president, _____________, publicly disagreed with him on the subject of states' rights.
The Bank of the United States
Andrew Jackson believed that ____________ symbolized Eastern wealth and threatened American democracy.
a steadily growing slave trade in the South
The Industrial Revolution in the United States involved all of the following except __________.
the cotton gin
Which development led to a sharp rise in the number of slaves imported to the southern United States?
to bring an end to slavery
Henry Clay proposed the American System for all of the following reasons EXCEPT _________.
creating a better transportation network to facilitate the exchange of goods.
The American System helped bring the nation together by ____________________.
the Great Lakes
Completed in 1825, the Erie Canal connected the Atlantic Ocean with what?
Adams-Onis Treaty
What was responsible for the United States acquiring Florida?
maintained the balance of slave states and free states
The Missouri Compromise _____________.
the Western Hemisphere
Which area did the Monroe Doctrine aim to free from European influence?
Andrew Jackson
Which candidate did John Quincy Adams defeat in the controversial election of 1824?
they had adopted aspects of European culture
Some Native American peoples in the Southeast were called "the five civilized tribes" because _______________________.
states' rights
Which idea is promoted by the concept of nullification?
Northern manufacturers
The 1828 "Tariff of Abominations" was given that name by those who thought the tariff hurt the South while helping _________________.
John C. Calhoun
The concept of states' rights was enthusiastically supported by _____________.
printing paper money that was not backed up by gold and silver
Andrew Jackson's "pet banks" contributed to the Panic of 1837 by ____________________.
William Henry Harrison
Which Whig candidate defeated Martin Van Buren for president in 1840?
market revolution
What occurred in the early 19th century and changed the way people acquired the goods they needed?
Samuel F. B. Morse
Who improved on an earlier device and created the telegraph?
specialization
What is it called when a farmer raises only one or two crops for sale?
capitalism
What is the economic system in which private corporations and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits?
entrepreneur
What word comes from the French word meaning "to undertake", and refers to those who invested their money in new industries?
I.M. Singer
Who added the foot treadle to the sewing machine that drastically reduced the time it took to sew garments?
telegraph
What invention carried messages, tapped in code, across copper wire?
steamboat
Which invention allowed goods to be transported upriver, against the current?
railroad
What was the fastest means of transportation available to Americans of the mid-19th century?
steel plow
Which invention sliced through heavy soil much more easily than existing tools?
John Deere
Who invented the steel plow?
Cyrus McCormick
Who invented the mechanical reaper?
mercantilism, balance of trade
According to the theory of ___________, a nation could increase its wealth and power by obtaining as much gold and silver as possible, and by establishing a favorable ___________, in which it sold more goods than it bought.
Parliament, Navigation Acts
Beginning in 1651, England's ___________, the country's legislative body, moved to tighten control of colonial trade by passing a series of measures known as the ______________.
Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros
Seeking to make colonial government more obedient, King James II disbanded the local assemblies of the northern colonies, united the area from southern Maine to New Jersey under the _________, and chose ________ to rule over it.
Glorious Revolution, salutary neglect
In the years after the _________ of 1688, where parliament offered the throne to William of Orange, England turned its attention away from the colonies, adopting an overall colonial policy that became known as ____________.
Parliament, Dominion of New England
After the overthrow of James II, a series of laws was passed by __________ that disbanded the ___________ and returned the colonies to their previous status.
John Winthrop
____________ was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Anglican Church
Separatists felt that it was impossible to reform the ____________ from within.
True
T/F: The Puritan concept of a "city upon a hill" refers to their desire to form a society that would be a model new society.
True
T/F: Roger Williams, after fleeing from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, founded the Providence Colony.
banished
Anne Hutchinson was _________ for teaching that worshippers needed neither the church nor its ministers to interpret the Bible for them.
English
The Pequot War and King Philip's War resulted in victories for the __________.
Saratoga
The British defeat at __________ resulted in France signing an alliance with the Americans.
Corn Wallis
The British decided to negotiate a peace settlement after General _________ surrendered at Yorktown.
searching for gold and other riches
To John Smith's dismay, the settlers in Jamestown directed most of their energy toward __________________.
worsened
As more and more settlers arrived in Jamestown, relations between the settlers and the Powhatan peoples _____________.
tobacco
What turned Jamestown into a profitable enterprise?
land
To encourage settlers to come to Jamestown, the headright system offered them _________.
an indentured servant or a former indentured servant
In the early years of the Virginia colony, a field laborer was most likely to be ____________.
It came under the direct control of the king.
Which of the following occurred as a result of Virginia's being made a royal colony?
frontier colonists against the Virginia government
Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion of ___________.
Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr
The House of Representatives decided the presidential election of 1800 when _______ and his running mate, _________, received the same number of electoral votes.
Federalists, Thomas Jefferson
The political decline of the _________ was hastened by the political moderation of ________, which proved to Americans that he was not a radical.
John Marshall, Federalists
President Adams appointed _________ as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. A staunch supporter of the ___________, he would serve for more than thirty years, handing down decisions that strengthened the power of the Supreme Court and the federal government.
Judiciary Act of 1801, midnight judges
Just prior to leaving office, President Adams pushed the _________ through Congress, increasing the number of federal judges by sixteen. Adams promptly filled most of these positions with his supporters. These judges were referred to as ____________ because Adams signed their appointments in the closing hours of his term.
Marbury v. Madison, judicial review
An 1803 court case, _______, affirmed that the Supreme Court had the right to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional, a principle known as __________.
Sacajawea, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
_______ served as a guide to the expedition led by _____ and _______ to explore the lands gained from France as a result of the Louisiana Purchase.
neutrality
This is the official attitude that George Washington took in response to the war between France and Britain, despite the 1778 treaty with France.
Edmond Genet
This French diplomat caused an uproar by making efforts to recruit Americans for the war effort against Great Britain.
Thomas Pinckney
This American diplomat negotiated a treaty in which Spain agreed to give up all claims to land east of the Mississippi and north of Florida.
Little Turtle
This leader of the Miami Confederacy, who led them to victory, over General Josiah Harmar, was replaced for urging peace with General Wayne.
John Jay
This American diplomat negotiated a treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts in the Northwest Territory.
sectionalism
The electoral college votes in 1796 indicated that this attitude, placing regional interests over national interests, was dividing the country.
XYZ Affair
This event angered Americans, provoked a wave of anti-French feelings, and led to an undeclared naval war with France.
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Federalists pushed this series of laws through Congress to counter what they perceived as a growing threat against the government of the U.S.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These declarations, supported by the Democratic-Republicans, claimed that states have the right to consider void any act of Congress that they deem unconstitutional.
George Washington
This ambitious 22-year-old colonel was defeated at Fort Necessity in the opening battle of the French and Indian War.
William Pitt
Under his leadership the British army finally began winning battles in the French and Indian War, and the Iroquois agreed to support Britain.
Pontiac
Although he captured eight British forts in the Ohio River Valley, he was forced to negotiate when his troops were severely weakened by disease.
Proclamation of 1763
This banned all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
George Grenville
This financial expert was chosen by King George III to serve as Prime Minister in the hope that he could solve the financial problems caused by the French and Indian War.
Sugar Act
This was intended to crack down on smuggling and to raise money to pay off the war debt.