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APUSH unit 3
Terms in this set (66)
Major results of the Compromise of 1850?
A compromise created as a result of opposition by the southern radicals or "fire eaters" toward the admission and creation of a constitution which defined California and New Mexico as free states. The compromise created by Henry clay added to the north's political power, by admitting California as a free state and banning slave trade in DC. It gave the south an opportunity to implement slavery by dividing the Mexican cession into territories of Utah and New Mexico in which slavery is determined by popular sovreignty and allowing slave owners to keep slaves in DC. It also resulted in disputed land between Texas and New Mexico given to new territories in return of the 10 million debt paid off, as well as opposition by northern abolitionist due to the new Fugitive Slave Law, which resulted in the creation of Uncle Tom's Cabin and other abolitionist movements.
What were all (as many as possible) of the things the Freedmen's Bureau provided?
The bureau, created by Congress in 1865, was the first welfare agency in which provided shelter, food and medical aid, as well as resettle freed blacks on confiscated lands for newly free slaves. The bureau is known mostly for education, where nearly 3,000 schools were established as well as many colleges.
What was the intent of the Black Codes passed in a number of southern states after the Civil War?
The intent was to restrict the rights and movements of newly freed slaves. They prohibited blacks from renting or borrowing money to buy land, placing work contracts that put blacks into semi bondage- which was the contract labor system, where blacks worked on cotton fields under white supervision for small wages. The codes intent was also to prohibit blacks to testify against whites in court, basically to preserve white dominance and discrimination in the south.
What were the major elements of the Radical Republican program implemented during Reconstruction?
the free exercise of civil rights, education in schools- Freedmen's Bureau, the distribution of land, citizenship and civil rights of blacks- fourteenth amendment, to punish confederate states by disqualifying holding of office by for confed, repudiate debts and penalize states who kept eligible person from voting
What did the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for?
the three acts placed southern states under military occupation, divided the former confederate states into five military districts, each under control of union army. The acts also increased the requirements for readmission into the Union. These requirements were the implementation of the 14th amendment and guarantees in the constitution granting franchise to all adult males.
How did the emancipation of slaves in the seceded states play into the initial Union strategy to win the Civil War?
The emancipation enlarged the purpose of the war by making the issue of war a moral one. It also increased the union army by the large admission of slaves crossing over to the union lines, the fighting for freedom caused them to be more motivated. By the advancement of the northern troops more troops were also liberated.
In what ways did the Panic of 1857 have an effect on sectional conflict?
The serious drops in prices for midwestern farmers, as well as increased unemployment in northern cities were problems in which the south did not have to endure. Thus, the stable high prices of cotton caused southerners to believe that their economic system was more superior to the northern economy, therefore little dependence for the north to accomodate the south
What were the major arguments in the debates over the Compromise of 1850?
The creation of a new Fugitive Slave Law and the idea of hindering rights, the sectional balance of the free and slave states, as well as the usage of the land acquired during the Mexican session. The crisis of republicanism, the ideological tradition that grew out of the movement for American independence
Describe northern politics during the Civil
The idea of halting the expansion of slavery to western states and to preserve the union.
What were some political effects of the fighting in Kansas in 1855 and 1856?
The democratic party became more divided. "Lecompton Constitution," a pro-slavery document. The abolitionist forces boycotted the ratification vote because it failed to offer them a means to vote against slavery. The Lecompton Constitution was accepted by President James Buchanan, who urged acceptance and statehood. Congress disagreed and ordered another election. In the second election the pro-slavery forces boycotted the process, allowing the anti-slavery forces to claim victory by defeating the document.
What were the major results of the
Douglas won his campaign for reelection as U.S senator and Lincoln became a national figure and contender for the Republican nomination for president.
What was John Brown's primary
purpose in attacking Harpers Ferry?
to commence a slave uprising in Virginia by attacking the federal arsenal to arm Virgina's slaves.
What were the major results of Uncle
the movement of northerners and Europeans regarding slave masters and slavery as monstrous and inhuman. This caused many abolitionist groups to form. And later halted the helping of the south by the European countries.
Why was the Battle of Antietam particularly critical?
The knowledge of the Confederates plan caused the Union Army to intercept the confederates at the Antietam Creek. The battle stopped confederates from getting recognition and aid from foreign powers and made Lincoln bold enough to pronounce his Emancipation of Proclamation.
What was Lee's major reason for
invading northern territory in 1863?
to gain French or British recognition the confederacy needed to demonstrate that they were a viable nation. Also Gettysburg was to obtain food and supplies from an area not touched by war would greatly help the army.
What were the major long-term political
consequences of northern victory?
Republican majorities in both houses of Congress. Republicans split in factions. Radical- abolish slavery, moderate-economic opportunities for whites. Democrats and Copperheads wanting peace.
The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on?
Both major political parties were influenced by the Grant-era corruption and sought to
nominate candidates who could win the public trust.The Democrats turned to Samuel J. Tilden, who had established an enviable record as the reform-minded governor of New York. An Republicans, Rutherford B. Hayes, Tilden had
won the majority of the popular vote, but there was little agreement on what the electoral results. "Compromise of 1877," convinced the Democrats that they should accept the Commission's 8-7 vote, which made Hayes the new president.
What was John C. Calhoun's plan to
protect the South and slavery?
He argued against compromise and insisted that the south be given equal rights in the acquired territories of the Mexican cession.
And the election of two presidents, one from the North and one from the South.
. The Compromise of 1877 resulted in?
The formal deal of making Hayes president if her implements the immediate end of federal support for the Republicans in the South and the support of building of a southern transcontinental railroad. Also the withdrawal of the last federal troops protecting blacks and republicans.
What was Lincoln's and Johnson's plan
for Reconstruction in 1865
Lincoln: Presidential pardons granted to southerners who took allegience to Union and Constitution and accept emancipation of slaves. 10 percent of states accept these oaths. Also the Freedmen's Bureau, providing aid to free slaves.
Johnsons: Disenfranchisement of former leaders in the confederacy and those with 20,000 in taxable property. Retained the power to grant individual pardons for disloyal southerners.
For a short time in the 1850s, an
American seized control of what country?
Nicaragua. William Walker had finally taken over Nicaragua in the year of 1855. His regime in this country even gained recognition from the United States in 1856. Eventually he was defeated by a coalition of Central American countries.
Why was President Andrew Johnson impeached (specifically)?
The Radicals in the House of Representatives impeached him in 1868, charging him with violating the law (specifically the Tenure of Office Act). He challenged the Tenure of Office Law by dismissing Stanton on his own authority and he then was charged for 11 high crimes and misdemeanors.
What did the "redeemers" in the South
representing the interests of rural areas and the majority of Southerners. Redeemers cut real estate taxes, established state commissions of agriculture, subsidized state fairs, sponsored experimental farms, employed chemists to inspect fertilizers and to conduct soil surveys, established regulations for railroads, and supported lower tariffs.
Which group of white-southerners was the most pro-union?
The 1st Alabama Cavalry refused to join the rebellion and openly fought to preserve the United States of America.
The first attempt to apply the doctrine of
popular sovereignty in determining the status of slavery occurred in which state?
Mexican cession, Utah and New Mexico?
he Ostend Manifesto was a document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United
States to purchase Cuba from Spain and implied the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused. Ostend Manifesto proposed a shift in
foreign policy, justifying the use of force to seize Cuba in the name of national security.
This was a bill which was created by a politician from Pennsylvania who happened to also be a congressman. David Wilmot provided in his bill that slavery should be forbidden in any of the new provinces added to America from Mexico . The bill passed through the House of Representatives twice however it was denied by the Senate. This bill was created in 1846, which was also the first year of the war between Mexico and the United States .
Which provision of the Compromise of 1850 provoked the most controversy?
he new Fugitive Slave Law provisions were the most controversial of the provisions in the Compromise of 1850.
The strengthened Fugitive Slave Law
This was the idea that the public should be the ones to decide whether or not slavery should be allowed in a territory, not necessarily congress. Popular sovereignty also means the popular vote of the populous remains sovereign over the government. Many people who lived in these territories were also supportive of this idea as it gave them to right to choose what they wished to happen in the territory they were going to live in. The idea was started by Lewis Cass, a Democratic senator from Michigan . He proposed a compromise which gained support from both northerners and southerners who were moderates. This method was known as the "squatter" or "popular sovereignty".
Know as much about pre-Civil War American slavery as you can
North has immigration concerns, growing manufacturing, south is addicted to King Cotton, slavery growing only out of natural reproduction and smuggling. South lead by plantation owners, despite masses of poorer whites.
Dred Scott decision
This was a Supreme Court decision in which a slave who had been bought in a slave state and then temporarily lived in a free state tried to gain his freedom. After traveling with his master around the country, he offered to buy himself from the master's wife, the master had since deceased. When she refused to let him buy his freedom, Scott went through the courts to try and gain his freedom, and it was here that he was again denied by the supreme court which ruled that his temporary residence in a free state did not give him freedom, and that if they were to free him, they would be depriving his master the rights to his property.
all for the "immediate and uncompensated emancipation of the slaves" is associated with the position of whom/what?
William Lloyd Garrison was uncompromising in his opinion of the emancipation of the slaves. He also began the abolitionist paper called "the liberator" in 1831. Garrison also along with other abolitionists founded the American Antislavery Foundation.
Why did President Lincoln refrain from taking action to emancipate slaves until the Civil War had been in progress for almost two years?
Lincoln feared that by emancipating the slaves would drive the Border States out of the union. One of his main priorities when taking action against slavery was to keep the support of the Border States .
In the pre-Civil War era, the railroad's most important impact on the economy was......?
Participation of the federal government in the financing of a nationwide transportation network. The United States government contributed large sums of money towards these railroad projects. In 1850, the US government granted 2.6 million acres of government land to the construction of the Illinois Central Railroad.
Describe the policy of the government of Mexico towards Texas
Mexico Outlawed slavery in Texas . Mexico closed Texas to additional American immigrants. When Texas revolted, Mexico waged war to win it back. After the annexation of Texas and the US , war between Mexico and the US was inevitable. Mexican government thought that the southern border was at the Nueces river and US though it was at the Rio Grande . Mexico created a law that mandated the acceptance of Catholic religion. General Santa Anna came to power, and the collection of import duties. Mexico was not influenced by the support for annexation by both John Tyler and James Polk.
Most threatening foreign problem for the Union from 1861 through 1863 was
Possible British recognition of the Confederacy. Foreign support for the Confederacy. The Union had to prevent the confederate states from gaining the support and recognition from European nations such as Britain and France .
Republican Party platform with respect to slavery in the 1860 election was
Slavery should not be allowed to expand into the territories. The Republican platform specifically pledged not to extend slavery in the territories.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) heightened the sectional crisis because....?
It repealed the Missouri Compromise.Act started by stephen a douglas in attempt to win southern approval to build transcontinental railroad. It also reopened the issue of slavery in the territory north of the 36 30' because of the repeal of this compromise. The Missouri Compromise is also known as the Compromise of 1820. This act allowed for the people who lived in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to choose whether or not they wished for slavery to be legal in the territory which they lived in. This was a very controversial act, and the results of it were also very controversial. Many slaveholding southerners had fled to these two territories in order to throw off the vote to favor slavery in these two territories.
Which of the following provided sources of revenue for the federal government in the period from 1800 to 1860 (could be more than 1)?
I. Income tax
II. Sales tax
III. Customs duties
IV. Land sales
V. Real estate taxes
Customs duties and Land Sales.
Differences between the north and south in the 1850's
Most of the differences between the north and south in the 1850's stemmed from the issue of slavery. These issues were also brought up in many documents and acts which were created to address such an issue, such as the Kansas Nebraska Act. Many works of literature were published in the north against slavery declaring it as an evil. Those in the south however argued that slavery was good for both master and slave and that it was sanctioned in the bible therefore being ok. During the first half of the 19th century, economic differences between the regions also increased. By 1860 cotton was the chief crop of the South, and it represented 57 percent of all U.S. exports. The profitability of cotton, known as King Cotton, completed the South's dependence on the plantation system and its essential component, slavery. The North was by then firmly established as an industrial society. Labor was needed, but not slave labor.
What were the responses of Great Britain and France to the American Civil War?
They saw advantages in a divided Union , but pursued cautious policies toward both sides. The introduction of the many books pertaining to slavery commenced this neutrality because participating on the south side may make the citizens of the countries angry. Both Great Britain and France did not recognize the Confederacy nor lend them their support during the war. They did have sympathy for the southern states and often sold them weaponry and ships which were helpful to the south, however they never really took one side over the other. The fact that Lee could not win during his invasion at Antietam meant that England would not risk recognition of the Confederacy. Another factor in this issue was the Emancipation Proclamation which was very strongly supported by the British working class.
North's advantages over the South at the outbreak of the Civil War were?
The north had all of the following advantages over the south at the outbreak of the Civil War.
1 more substantial industrial resources.
2 a more extensive railroad network.
3 dominance in foreign trade.
4 naval supremecy
The north however did not have greater agreement over war aims, at the outbreak of the civil war. Many thought that the war was to costly, which might have led to a turn against Lincoln because of this disagreement.
Characterization of American Transcendentalists
Argued for the importance of human intuition and individualism. The transcendentalists were highly individualistic and viewed organized institutions as unimportant, they supported a variety of reforms, especially the antislavery movement. They felt that artistic expression was more important than wealth. And they argued for a mystical and intuitive way of thinking as a means for discovering one's inner self and looking for the essence of God in nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were both transcendentalists. Thoreau came up with the concept of civil disobedience.
Reasons for the dramatic increase in the South's slave labor force between 1810 and 1860?
The cotton boom and natural reproduction played major roles in the increase of the number of slaves. The cotton gin was a major reason for the increase in the South's slave labor force. The dramatic increase in the slave labor force in the south can be attributed to acquisition of new territories in the west, opposition to documents such as the Wilmot Proviso and the expansion of the American nation such as its annexation to Texas and expeditions such as the Nicaragua expedition by Walker .
in addition to the cotton gin, Eli Whitney's major contribution to American technology was his
Eli Whitney apparently developed a musket which could be built using interchangeable parts, which not only was this gun very important but the concept of interchangeable parts was as well. This soon became the basis for northern manufacturing in the factories.
Which was not a result of the American Civil War?
- The emergence of the trust as a form of business organization.
- The initiation of transcontinental railroad
- Runaway inflation in the South
- The creation of a more uniform national banking system
- Disruption of cotton exports to England .
The initiation of the transcontinental railroad is not a result of the civil war because it was already started by the Gadsden purchase previous to the Civil War.
Two southern diplomats were captured by Union troops and held from their voyage to Europe in order to gain diplomatic recognition by Great Britain . This created strains between the United States and Great Britain pushing the two nations to the brink of war. This issue was diffused when Lincoln ordered the prisoners to be released, and he disapproved of the actions of the Union troops who had captured the men in the first place.
Before the Civil War, in New England textile mills, farm girls were replaced by
Factory production in the time before 1840 was mainly concentrated in the textile mills located in New England . These textile mills relied mainly on farm girls to work in them, however now after 1840 industrialization spread rapidly. Factories were now being powered by alternate forms of energy. Often times machines would make production faster requiring less girls to man the machines who still put out the same amount of products.
Principles established by the Dred Scott decision
The Dred Scott decision removed the restrictions against the spread of slavery into the western territories. This was a supreme court decision in which a slave who had been bought in a slave state and then temporarily lived in a free state tried to gain his freedom. After traveling with his master around the country, he offered to buy himself from the master's wife, the master had since deceased. When she refused to let him buy his freedom, Scott went through the courts to try and gain his freedom, and it was here that he was again denied by the supreme court which ruled that his temporary residence in a free state did not give him freedom, and that if they were to free him, they would be depriving his master the rights to his property.
"Let Southern oppressors tremble.... I shall strenuously contend for immediate enfranchisement.... I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice." Who said this?
William L. Garrison had said this in his Liberator which was a publication that he founded. He is known as being a famous abolitionist and one of the founders of the Antislavery Comitee. This statement was made in 1831.
Reasons Congress imposed Radical Reconstruction measures
They had a fear that a totally reunified Democratic party might become dominant once again. The south now included all of its black citizens in the population count which gave them large numbers of representatives which made them even stronger. The measures taken by congress in their plan for reconstruction were much harsher on the southern whites and more protective of the freed blacks.
Why did Congressional Reconstruction end in 1877
It was part of a compromise to resolve the disputed election of 1876. This was the
Compromise of 1877 which essentially ended the radical reconstruction era by having president Hayes withdraw the federal troops protecting blacks and other republicans
What were the consequences of the shift to sharecropping and the crop lien system in the late nineteenth century south
Sharecropping and the crop lien system in a way reconstructed slavery in a "legal" manner. This also brought up the issue of whether or not the north had actually won the war or not since one of the main causes for fighting was coming back into existence.
What terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the Mexican War
This treaty was created in 1848 and was negotiated by the American diplomat Nicholas Trist. The treaty called for the recognition by Mexico of the Rio Grande river as the border between Texas and Mexico . It also stated that the United States would take over the former Mexican possessions located in California and New Mexico . With this America would pay Mexico 15 million dollars.
The theme of individualism is most evident in the writings of
Ralph Waldo Emerson: A transcendalist, who urged Americans to stop imitating European culture and to make American culture. His writings argued about self reliance and independent thing. He became a supporter of the union is the Civil war
Describe the situation (using specifics) of freedmen in the decade following the Civil War
The freedmen were given their citizenship by the Fourteenth amendment. They were also freed as slaves by the thirteenth amendment. Although free many blacks were placed under the constraints of the Black codes which prevented them from owning lands, testifying in courts and forcing them to sign work contracts. In 1869 freedmen were given the right to vote, which later was also constrained by the laws enforced in the south.
Secretary Of State Seward and "Seward's Folly."
In 1867 due to the works of Secretary of State Seward, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia which is also known as Seward's Folly. This purchase later turned out to be quite profitable. In comparison to the size of the nation previously Alaska was very large, almost as big as the United States as a whole.
acts about African American soldiers during the Civil War (as many as you can)
After the Emancipation proclamation many southern slaves escaped from slavery to find the Union troops to join with them. These troops were segregated into different units however they fought courageously. They fought in the Army of Freedom. It wasn't until late in the war when the Confederates began to accept slaves into their army.
The majority of White Families in the antebellum South owned how many slaves
About half of the white slave owning families in the south owned around 5 slaves or fewer in the Antebellum south.
What were some serious constitutional questions that arose after the Civil War
After the civil war, the rights of the blacks came into play in a more serious manner. The 13,14 and 15 amendments to the constitution had to be passed in order to protect the rights and liberties given to the blacks, which were being flagrantly violated even after the civil war.
This was when President Pierce had sent three diplomats to Ostend which was located in Belgium in order to try to purchase Cuba from the Spanish. When the manifesto that was drawn up regarding this purchase had been released, Congress forced the president to drop the idea.
This was also a nickname given to those who were newer to the north, also given to these people by the northern democrats.
Redeemer administration achievements
The Redeemer administrations that took hold after the collapse of the republican governments in the South kept many of their reforms, such as those in education taxation, women's property rights, and in public works. They however did reverse some protections for the African Americans, as the Redeemers were racists and white-only groups. They also had large amounts of corruption, as did much of the nation during the Grant administration.
American Colonization Society
The goal of this society was to established a state for freed African Americans on the West African Coast. They succeeded in that they founded the nation of Liberia , with the capital of Monrovia , which became an independent state in 1847. In terms of who supported the movement, Henry Clay was a founder, and Daniel Webster was a known member, as was James Madison who generated support. William Lloyd Garrison was against the society, published a 236 page long book against colonization and sent his abolitionist agents out of the United States to help counter the society. Fredrick Douglass disliked the society, as he didn't believe that the creation of Liberia could help the slavery situation, and he believed that the coexistence of whites and blacks was possible.
What was the most important/most memorable point to Daniel Webster's famous speech in response to Senator Hayne (your interpretation may be one of the choices)?
During the debates between Webster and Hayne, Webster declared that any state could defy or leave the Union . He was also later supported by Jackson who agreed with his statement. One of the more memorable parts in the speech was the following statement, "made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people," which would later be repeated in a speech made by Lincoln . This speech was not only influential during the time when it took place, but it was also important later on before and during the Civil War.
What was Congress' primary reason for adopting the 14th Amendment
Congress adopted the Fourteenth Amendment
, which had been proposed in 1866 and ratified in 1868, as a constitutional amendment that provided for citizenship of all those born in the United States, and that all citizens are to be given equal respect and due process of the law. By being an amendment, this affected both the Federal and the State's level government. The amendment's other clauses regarded measures of the radical republican's image of reconstruction. This included prohibiting former confederates from holding public office, that the debts of former confederate states to be repaid, and penalties in terms of electoral and Congressional representation if a state government prevented any persons from voting. The Republican Congress followed this bill under fear that the southerners may gain control of Congress and reverse all their moral work. An amendment would be a considerable defense against future southern political ambitions.
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