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Albert Gallatin

Secretary of Treasury under President Jefferson

Alice Paul

head of Nation Woman's Party

Andrew Carnegie

Steel tycoon, Gospel of Wealth

Andrew Mellon

Sec of State under Coolidge, steel + alum. tycoon

Anne Bradstreet

first American poet

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan minister of a dissident church

Bernard Baruch

financier, adviser to Wilson and FDR

Betty Friedan

writer, The Feminine Mystique

Black Hawk

leader Sauk American Indian tribe

Booker T. Washington

black advocate for self improvement for Black Americans

Boss Tweed

Boss of Tammany Hall

Brigham Young

Mormon community in Utah

Bruce Barton

Portrayed Christ as super salesman

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan

imperialist, great countries had sea power

Carrie Chapman

Woman's suffrage leader of NAWSA

Carry A Nation

Temperance advocate through vandalism

Cesar Chavez

United Farm Workers in CA

Charles Darwin


Charles Evan Hughes

Sec of State after WWI, Chief Justice

Charles G Finney

Evangelistic Presbyterian minister in 1820s and 30s

Charles Schwab

US Steel Corp

Charles Sumner

Beaten by Preston Brooks in Congress

Chief Joseph

Leader of Nez Pierce

Clara Barton

Founder of Red Cross

Commodore Dewey

Navy, seized Philippines


Democrats opposed Civil War

Cyrus McCormick

Mechanical reaper

Daniel Ellsberg

Leaked Pentagon Papers

Daniel Webster

Webster Ashburton Treaty (Maine/Canada border)

Dennis Kearney

Workingmen's Party of CA

Denmark Vesey

West Indian slave who plotted uprising, executed

Dorothea Dix

Mental health pioneer

Dr. Francis Townsend

Townsend Plan, pensions for retirees

Edgar Allen Poe

poems and short stories, the raven

Edith Wharton

First women to win Pulitzer Prize, Age of Innocence

Edward Bellamy

Looking Backwards

Edwin M Stanton

Sec of War during Civil War, dismissed by Jackson under Tenure of Office

Eleanor Roosevelt

Wife of FDR, civil rights advocate

Eli Whitney

cotton gin, interchangeable parts for firearms

Elias Howe

sewing machine

Elihu Root

Sec of War under McKinley, Sec of State under T Roosevelt

Elijah Lovejoy

St. Louis Observer, Presbyterian minister

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Social activist, early woman's movement, declaration of sentiment

Emma Willard

Women's rights advocate, higher education for women

Ernest Hemingway

Novelist, Lost Generation, Old Man and the Sea

Eugene V Debs

Socialist union leader, International Labor Union and IWW

F Scott Fitzgerald

writer, Lost Generation, Great Gatsby

Father Charles Coughlin

Roman Catholic priest, radio to reach mass audience

Frances Perkins

Sec of Labor, first woman on Cabinet with FDR, labor movement in New Deal

Francis Cabot Lowell

Textile manufacturing industry

Francis Willard

WTCU, prohibition

Frank Lloyd Wright

architect and writer, prairie style

Frank Norris

first naturalist writer

Frederick Douglass

black abolitionist, North Star

Frederick Jackson Turner

frontier thesis

Gabriel Prosser

unsuccessful slave leader of revolt in Richmond, VA during 1800

General Braddock

unsuccessful British commander in NA during F+I War

General Douglass MacArthur

US General in WWII and Korean War, Southwest Pacific

General Winfield Scott

General in Mexican War, unsuccessful Whig candidate in 1852

George Mason

author of Virginia constitution and Declaration of Rights

George Rogers Clark

preeminent military officer on northwestern frontier during Revolution, related to William Clark

George Wallace

Governor of Alabama, ran for president 4 times and failed

George Washington Carver

peanut botanist

George Whitefield

Church of England, Methodist movement


Apache chief

Gilbert Stuart

painter, one of foremost portraitists

Gilbert Tennant

Methodist preacher during Great Awakening

Grant, McClellan, Sherman, Meade

Union officers in Civil War

Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Dean, Mitchell

Watergate scandal

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Uncle Tom's cabin

Harriet Tubman

assisted slaves escape w/ Underground railroad

Helen Hunt Jackson

romanticized west as utopia

Henry Cabot Lodge

imperialist, nativist, anti-Wilson

Henry Clay

great compromiser, American system, Missouri compromise of 1820, compromise of 1850, and more

Henry David Thoreau

transcendentalist, wrote Walden Pond

Henry George

Progress and Poverty, labor rights

Henry James

realistic writer of late 1800s, the Ambassadors, Portrait of a Lady

Henry L Mencken

Debunker of 1920s, ridiculed middle class in Smart Set and American Mercury

Henry S Kissinger

Nixon's national security adviser, Vietnam war policy (peace with honor)

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Popular poet of the day, fireside poems

Henry Ward Beecher

liberal American Congregational clergyman, involved in adultery trial

Herbert Croly

influential nationalist, Promise of American Life

Horace Greeley

editor of New York Tribune, liberal leader

Huey Long

rose to power through attacks on banks, trusts, and utilities

Ida Tarbell

muckracker on Standard Oil trust

Jack London

popular and powerful writer of the time, Call of the Wild

Jackie Robinson

first black in MLB

Jacob Riis

How the Other Half Lives

James B Duke

tobacco processing industry

James Fenimore Cooper

1st great American novelist, established American hero Natty Bumpo

James G Blaine

champion of Half Breeds

James Oglethorpe

military founder of Georgia

James Otis

No Taxation w/o representation

James Weldon Johnson

Harlem Renaissance author

Jane Addams

Hill House movement, first American woman to win Nobel

Jeanne Kirkpatrick

UN ambassador under Reagan, first American woman to be so

Jesse Jackson

Civil rights activist and Baptist minister

Jesse Owens

Black track athlete in 1936 Berlin Olympics

Jimmy Hoffa

president of Teamsters union, sent to jail but pardoned by Nixon

John Bartram

early botanist and horticulturalist

John Brown

white abolitionist, Harper's Ferry raid, Bleeding Kansas

John C Calhoun

Theory of Nullification

John C Fremont

Explorer of Far West, helped in Bear Flag Revolution

John D Rockefeller

Standard Oil Co, monopoly, vertical and horizontal integration

John Dewey

Pragmatism, advocate for educational reform

John Dickinson

PA debater, wanted reconciliation with Great Britain

John Foster Dulles

Sec of State to Eisenhower, Massive retaliation

John Jacob Astor

American Fur company, mountain men and others in frontier

John Locke

Enlightenment Thinker, Of Civil Gov't

John Paul Jones

Naval officer in Revolutionary War

John Rolfe

Tobacco pioneer in Jamestown, married Pocahontas

John Smith

founder of Jamestown, explored Virginia colony

John Steinbeck

wrote Grapes of Wrath, on Great Depression and dust bowl

John Sutter

Gold Rush of 1849

John Winthrop

Massachusetts Bay Colony, idealistic City on a hill

Jonathan Edwards

fiery preacher fueled Great Awakening

Joseph Pulitzer

founder of yellow journalism, aggressive and engrossing style

Joseph Smith

Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)

Josiah Strong

Nativist, ideals of democracy and civilization lie with WASPs

JP Morgan

banking mogul, bought Carnegie Steel

Robert E Lee, Stonewall Jackson

Confederate heroes of Civil War

Lincoln Steffens

Advocate against municipal corruption

Louis Brandeis

First Jewish Supreme court judge

Louis Sullivan


Lucretia Mott

First American feminist, Seneca Falls convention

Lucy Stone

influential lecturer in women's rights (antebellum)

Malcolm X

Nation of Islam, violent defense of blacks if necessary

Marcus Garvey

Jamaican promoting black nationalism

Margaret Fuller

Individual liberation and questionable gender roles

Margaret Sanger

birth control advocate

Maria Mitchell

American astronomer who discovered comet, protested slavery, didn't wear cotton

Mark Twain

great American writer of 19th century, Huck Finn

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Baptist pastor dedicated to civil rights, I have a dream

Mary Baker Eddy

Church of Christ, scientist

Mary Ellen Lease

Populist orator, raise less corn and more hell

Medgar Evers

NAACP official who did not want desegregation, killed in movement

Mercy Otis Warren

influential playwright, History of the Revolution

Nat Turner

slave preacher, killed 60 whites in an insurrection

Nathaniel Bacon

Led a rebellion in 1677 for back country grievances

Nathaniel Hawthorne

transcendentalist author, Scarlet Letter

Noah Webster

Webster's Dictionary

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Fireside poet, The Nautilus

Patrick Henry

Give me liberty or give me death

Philip Randolph

All black union, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Phyllis Wheatley

black poet, taught to read and write by master


Powhatan Indian, converts to Christianity and marries John Rolfe

Queen Liliuokalani

Queen of Hawaii, removed from power by US

Rachel Carson


Ralph Waldo Emerson

Transcendentalist, Nature, Self Reliance

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