Myers' Psychology for AP: Unit 3A
Terms in this set (26)
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
a brief electrical charge that travels down its axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron. the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by sending the neuron
"morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
bundled axons that form neural cables by connecting the central
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles, also called the skeletal nervous system. Controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscle.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs, such as the heart. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic calms.
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.