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myelin sheath

a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers


the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body


center of the neuron cell

nodes of ranvier

small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons


long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron


cell body of a neuron

terminal buttons

Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

somatosensory cortex

area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste

frontal lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead

occipital lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head, used in sight

motor cortex

the cortical area that influences motor movements

spinal chord

controls reflexes; carries signals from brain to the rest of the body

medulla oblongata

Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.


the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

temporal lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying inside the temples of the head, portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell

parietal lobe

portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch


part of the brain, works with the cerebellum in coordinating voluntary movement; neural stimulation studied in activation synthesis theory may originate here

Broca's aphasia

Loss of function associated with damage to a specific area of the left frontal lobe, demonstrated by impairment in producing understandable speech.

Wernicke's aphasia

Aphasia resulting from damage to the Wernicke's area of the frontal lobe. Affects written and spoken language. random

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

split brain procedure

a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mostly those of the corpus callosum) between them

corpus callosum

a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

localization of language function

located in the L hemisphere


relay area of all senses except smell


emotions- fear, aggression- and codes memories, two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion


creates memories, a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage


reflexes and body functions- breathing, heart beat eetc., the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.


connects brain- spinal cord and 2 parts of cerebellum coordination and connection

basal ganglia

movement, like cerebellum, A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements.


movement, fine motor skills, balance and coordination, the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

spinal cats

cut cat's spinal chords and observed results- paw still reflexed when touched to hot object

transcranial magnetic stimulation

Direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex induced by magnetic fields generated outside the skull, non-invasive stimulation of the brain caused by a rapidly changing electrical current in a coil held over the scalp


an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

CT scans

Are made by a process that uses multiple x-ray images to create three-dimensional images of body structures. Used to help identify tumor & cancers located in an organ. Are much more definitive that x-rays.

positron emission tomography

(PET) a visual display of brain activitythat detects where radioactive form glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. finds the energy users

magnetic resonance imaging

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. (MRI) negatives- tissues with little H content,

functional magnetic resonance imaging

a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain


Surgical instruments with a hollow barrel(or lumen) through their center. Cannulas are often inserted for drainage


areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound, or infection


a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain

divisions of the nervous system

Somatic nervous system (branches into sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers) and autonomic nervous system (breaks into afferent nerves and efferent nerves- splits into parasympathetic n.s. and sympathetic n.s.)


inability to recognize and identify objects/persons despite having the knowledge of the characteristics of objects or the persons; disorder of perception

flashbulb memories

detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence

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