Believed to be due to an excess of endolymph, more prevalent in females than males. Typically unilateral, becoming bilateral in 20-40%.
Aural fullness, decreased or fluctuating hearing, roaring tinnitus, vertigo. Classically all symptoms come at once in "attacks" that can be very devastating to the patient.
Incurable - low sodium & diuretics. Medications - used during an attack to relieve symptoms. Gentamicin - Obliterate inner ear.
Noise Induced Damage
Damage to the Organ of Corti from prolonged exposure to loud noise or short exposure to extremely intense noise.
Noise Induced Damage Characteristics
Classically high frequency hearing loss (notch pattern), permanent, usually gradual progression (unless intense), generally not noticed in early stages, treated with hearings aids, prevented with protection.
Infection of the central nervous system that commonly causes hearing loss (around 30% of cases have hearing loss)
Purulent Labyrinthitis, deteriorates organ of corti, can cause ossification of the cochlea, hearing loss - ranging from mild to profound.
Communicative - hearing aids, cochlear implants, learning ASL or other system. Medical - Antibiotic/steroid therapy.
Inner Ear Fistula
A hole in the oval or round window that allows perilymph to leak
Inner Ear Fistula Characteristics
Most common with genetic malformations of ossicles or cochlea. Can occur as a result of head trauma, almost always need exploratory surgery to confirm diagnosis, usually causes progressive hearing loss.
Inner Ear Fistula Symptoms
Include tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo, and in some rare cases a feeling of fluid moving in the ear with movement.
Inner Ear Fistula Treatment
Patch with a drop of blood and/or adipose tissue. Hearing aids, or possible balance adaptation training.
Can develop if bacterial toxins, tissue fluids, or bacteria enter the fluids of the labyrinth. Good prognosis for recovery with medical treatment, which are steroids and antibiotics.
Vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome
A thinning of absence of bone in the temporal bone overlying the superior margin of the superior SCC. Due to congenital defect, trauma, or infection.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Symptoms
Vertigo with loud sounds, vertigo with pressure changes (coughing, sneezing, blowing nose, etc), feeling of fullness, possible hearing loss.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Treatment
Surgical repair; bone graft.
Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct
Causes: congenital or possibly acquired during early childhood. Symptoms often come with a "hit to the head". Symptoms: Progressive, stepped hearing loss. Vertigo, imbalance.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Most common cause of this. Otoconia become dislodged from macula. Displaced SCC (usually posterior). Creates vertigo when that canal is stimulated.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Symptoms
Vertigo that lasts 20-30 seconds. Sudden, intense vertigo with head movements "top-shelf" vertigo. Accompanied with diaphoresis & emesis.