Inner Ear Disorders

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Terms in this set (...)

Merniere's Disease
Believed to be due to an excess of endolymph, more prevalent in females than males. Typically unilateral, becoming bilateral in 20-40%.
Merniere's Symptoms
Aural fullness, decreased or fluctuating hearing, roaring tinnitus, vertigo. Classically all symptoms come at once in "attacks" that can be very devastating to the patient.
Merniere's Treatment
Incurable - low sodium & diuretics. Medications - used during an attack to relieve symptoms. Gentamicin - Obliterate inner ear.
Noise Induced Damage
Damage to the Organ of Corti from prolonged exposure to loud noise or short exposure to extremely intense noise.
Noise Induced Damage Characteristics
Classically high frequency hearing loss (notch pattern), permanent, usually gradual progression (unless intense), generally not noticed in early stages, treated with hearings aids, prevented with protection.
Meningitis
Infection of the central nervous system that commonly causes hearing loss (around 30% of cases have hearing loss)
Meningitis Effects
Purulent Labyrinthitis, deteriorates organ of corti, can cause ossification of the cochlea, hearing loss - ranging from mild to profound.
Meningitis Treatments
Communicative - hearing aids, cochlear implants, learning ASL or other system. Medical - Antibiotic/steroid therapy.
Inner Ear Fistula
A hole in the oval or round window that allows perilymph to leak
Inner Ear Fistula Characteristics
Most common with genetic malformations of ossicles or cochlea. Can occur as a result of head trauma, almost always need exploratory surgery to confirm diagnosis, usually causes progressive hearing loss.
Inner Ear Fistula Symptoms
Include tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo, and in some rare cases a feeling of fluid moving in the ear with movement.
Inner Ear Fistula Treatment
Patch with a drop of blood and/or adipose tissue. Hearing aids, or possible balance adaptation training.
Labyrinthitis
Can develop if bacterial toxins, tissue fluids, or bacteria enter the fluids of the labyrinth. Good prognosis for recovery with medical treatment, which are steroids and antibiotics.
Labyrinthitis Symptoms
Vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome
A thinning of absence of bone in the temporal bone overlying the superior margin of the superior SCC. Due to congenital defect, trauma, or infection.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Symptoms
Vertigo with loud sounds, vertigo with pressure changes (coughing, sneezing, blowing nose, etc), feeling of fullness, possible hearing loss.
Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Treatment
Surgical repair; bone graft.
Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct
Causes: congenital or possibly acquired during early childhood. Symptoms often come with a "hit to the head". Symptoms: Progressive, stepped hearing loss. Vertigo, imbalance.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Most common cause of this. Otoconia become dislodged from macula. Displaced SCC (usually posterior). Creates vertigo when that canal is stimulated.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Symptoms
Vertigo that lasts 20-30 seconds. Sudden, intense vertigo with head movements "top-shelf" vertigo. Accompanied with diaphoresis & emesis.
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Treatment
Re-positioning maneuver (Semont Liberatory Maneuver, Epley Canalith Repositioning)
Labyrinthine Concussion
Soft tissue damage to the membranous labyrinth post-trauma. Amusement park ride, car accident, head trauma, sports, etc.
Immediate Vertigo Post-Trauma
Labyrinthine Concussion. Possible tinnitus and hearing loss in affected ear. Duration of Symptoms may last 1 hour to several weeks
Vestibular Neuritis
Second mos common cause of Vertigo. Cause: Viral infection or occlusion of vestibular artery, cerebrellar infarction, toxic & allergic agents.
Vestibular Neuritis Symptoms
Intense vertiginous attack with nausea and vomiting. No auditory changes, duration of episode is hours (48-72).
Vestibular Neuritis Treatment
Anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral meds. Recover 1-3 months, depending on compensation process.
Vestibular Schwannoma/Acoustic Neuroma
Tumor that affects the auditory nerve. They arise from the schwann cells of the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve.
Vestibular Schwannoma/Acoustic Neuroma Symptoms
Varied but include hearing loss, tinnitus, facial numbness, dizziness, and ear pain. Hearing loss begins in high freq due to anatomical layout of VIIIth nerve.
Acoustic Neuroma
Most commonly arise in IAM. Often grow into the cerebellopontine angle. If left untreated, can affect involuntary body functions by invading or putting pressure on pons.
Acoustic Neuroma Treatment
Removed surgically or with radiation.