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PSY 330 EXAM 3
Terms in this set (261)
The __________ technique is a social influence technique in which the influencer interferes with a person's critical thinking by introducing an unexpected element, and then recasts his or her message in a positive light.
The sleeper effect refers to the finding that, over time,
people tend to forget where (or from whom) they heard a persuasive argument or piece of informatioN
Communications that are fear-based (e.g., messages about the dangers of smoking) are not always effective. They tend to be MOST effective when they elicit __________, and LEAST effective when they elicit __________.
moderate levels of fear, low or high levels of fear
Social psychologists distinguish between two forms of social influence,
normative and informational.
In one well-known social psychological experiment, research participants were brought into a dark room where an experimenter projected dots of light. These dots of light appeared to move slightly as they were projected-though exactly how far they moved the participants couldn't say. When asked to estimate the distance that the light traveled, participants tended to look to others in the room, and ask them what they thought (not because they wanted to gain others' approval, but because they assumed that others knew more than they did). It would therefore be MOST accurate to say that participants' final estimates were based on
Research suggests that the practice of "stealing thunder" is
generally very effective
Vince is trying to pick up a woman at a bar. Instead of approaching her with a boring "standard line" (e.g., "Can I buy you a drink?"), he tries something new. He asks, "Can I buy you a diamond?" Even though he has no intention of buying the woman a diamond (at least not right away), he hopes that this will capture her attention. Social psychologists would say that Vince is using __________ social influence technique.
Samuela never pays attention in class and never studies, and she tends to fail most of the tests she takes in school. However, she constantly looks for opportunities to cheat during tests; she looks at her neighbors' answers and then writes down what she sees, assuming that her neighbors know the test material better than she does. In these cases, Samuela's test answers are based on
People sometimes do the exact opposite of what someone is trying to persuade them to do. For example, when parents tell their children not to look in certain drawers or cabinets, children sometimes sneak peeks into these places just because they were told not to. In social psychology, this effect is known as "the boomerang effect," or
negative attitude change.
Compared to persuasion via the peripheral route, persuasion via the central route
Produces stronger and more durable attitude change
Compared to others, people with a strong need for cognition tend to be
more persuaded by strong arguments but less persuaded by weak arguments
An infomercial advertises a Swedish pillow for $49.99. The voiceover then announces, "But wait! If you call within the next thirty minutes, you will also receive a Swedish eye mask, valued at over $14.00, along with a pair of Swedish evening candles... And wait, we are now throwing in-for a limited time only-a special booklet of Swedish bedtime stories, all for just $49.99." This infomercial appears to be using
the that's-not-all technique.
When stores have only a few items out on display-as opposed to piles of items-the merchandise appears to be more valuable. This is probably due to the so-called
When social psychologists talk about a persuasive communicator as being "trustworthy," they are referring to
whether the source will honestly tell you what she or he knows
Social psychologists who study persuasion use the term "source" to refer to
the individual who delivers a message.
Mark has been attending a Bible study with friends from his dorm. He really likes these people, although he thinks that their interpretation of the Bible is dead wrong. Yet, in the Bible studies, he tends to agree with them to avoid conflict because he enjoys their friendship so much. Mark has experienced .
Which of the following statements about speed of speech and persuasion is MOST accurate
In general, fast talkers are more persuasive
Social psychologists use the term __________ to refer to the tendency to engage in, and enjoy, effortful thinking, analysis, and problem solving
need for cognition
Suppose that two political candidates-Candidate A and Candidate B-run a series of negative advertisements about one another. Research suggests that
both candidates are likely to be rated more negatively than they were before
Two types of situations tend to produce informational influence. They are
ambiguous situations, and crisis situations.
The tendency to be persuaded by others who are similar to us, or who are physically attractive, illustrates the importance of
Mark has been attending a Bible study with friends from his dorm. After several months of attending and debating issues with the others in this group, Mark is persuaded that their understanding of the Bible is the correct one. Mark has experienced .
Sean is trying to get people to volunteer for a charity that he has set up. He tells people that "even three or four minutes" of their time will be greatly appreciated. Sean is apparently trying to influence people using
the legitimization-of-paltry-favors technique
In general, messages that are highly image-conscious and focus on brand name tend to appeal to people who are high in
Research indicates that people are less vulnerable to persuasive messages when they are well-rested, in a good mood, and not distracted by other stimuli. That is, people are less prone to be persuaded when they have __________.
Leaving explicit conclusions out of advertisements allows people to draw their own conclusions about the product in question. This practice generally
increases the persuasiveness of the advertisement.
The so-called foot-in-the-door technique is MOST related, conceptually speaking, to
the idea of cognitive dissonance.
In Asch's line-judging studies on conformity, it was found that conformity declined when
there was a "dissenter" in the group who always gave the correct response
In the terminology of the elaboration likelihood model, when people rely on automatic, nonconscious processing they are said to be using the __________ route.
The textbook describes an experiment in which groups of subjects discuss the punishment appropriate for "Johnny Rocco," a juvenile delinquent. In this experiment, subjects LEAST liked a confederate when he played the role of
A person who disagreed with the group ("deviant").
An apartment manager lists a "luxury penthouse" in the newspaper for an astoundingly low price, even though he has no such units available. The idea is to lure people in, and then try to sell them his relatively mediocre apartments. The manager is apparently using an influence technique known as
the bait-and-switch technique.
The tendency to assume that others know more than you do in a crisis or ambiguous situation, when in reality, no one knows anything, is called
When people believe that someone is trying to persuade them of something (and thus take away their freedom of choice), they experience a negative emotional response called
Advertisers use the term "advertising wearout" to refer to ads that are ineffective as a result oF
having been viewed too many times.
The term __________ refers to an influence technique based on commitment, wherein the influencer first gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request and only later reveals to the person hidden additional costs.
In the terminology of the elaboration likelihood model, when people rely on conscious, careful processing of information they are said to be using the __________ route
People who are told that they are "generous souls" are more likely to donate money to charity than people who aren't. Similarly, people who are told that they are "stylish and cutting edge" are more likely to be persuaded to buy new trendy items in a store. Salespeople who capitalize on this technique are said to use
the labeling technique
Which of the following is a social influence technique based on reciprocation?
The door-in-the-face techniquE
Presenting the same information over and over but in a different format each time helps prevent
The term __________ refers to the practice of revealing potentially incriminating information early on in an argument, before one is forced to do so and before one's opponent has an opportunity to be the one to reveal it, so as to negate its (potentially damaging) impact.
The assumption that physically attractive people possess other desirable characteristics is the effect.
an attempt to change a person's mind is called
The low-ball technique appears to operate based on the principle of
When people encounter persuasive messages, they tend to assume, by default, that these messages are _______
When people process persuasive messages using the central route (rather than the peripheral route), they expend __________ energy and, if they change their attitudes as a result of the message, are likely to end up with __________ attitude change.
Research suggests that there are two main things that make a source credible
expertise and trustworthiness.
According to the impressionable years hypothesis, __________ are a relatively easy-to-persuade group
adolescents and young adults
Some research has looked at whether or not giving people warnings that someone is about to try to persuade them of something has an impact on the degree to which they are persuaded. Such research has found that people are __________ likely to be persuaded by the argument when they receive a warning beforehand; the amount of advance notice they receive _________ this effect.
Preceding a request to someone with a smaller request to which they are very likely to agree is a good way to get them to say yes to the second, more important request. This strategy is known as
the foot-in-the-door technique.
informational social influence helps to produce __________, while normative social influence may merely elicit ________
private acceptance, public conformity
What does the research suggest about the role of distraction in persuasion
Distracting your audience decreases persuasion when you have a strong argument, but increases persuasion when you have a weak argument.
People are more likely to engage in central processing than peripheral processing when
the topic at hand is of personal relevance.
According to the textbook, altruism, as a personality characteristic, appears to
have a genetic component.
The idea that empathy triggers the need for social reward that can be gained by helping is called the
According to the textbook, prosocial behavior is defined
as any behavior that is good for other people or for society as a whole.
The term __________ refers to following orders from an authority figure.
The notion that "feeling another's pain" motivates us to help others is called the
People who are physically attractive tend to receive more help than people who aren't
regardless of whether they are male or female, and regardless of whether the helper is male or female.
Much of the time, people engage in altruistic behavior because doing so makes them feel good. Is it correct to conclude, then, that altruistic acts are fundamentally selfish? Or should such acts be considered altruistic despite their seemingly selfish motives? What do the textbook authors conclude about this?
Such acts are best thought of as selfish AND helpful. Indeed, it is incorrect to pit these drives against one another, as they have evolved in harmony.
Research indicates that reciprocity norms are found in __________ human cultures; and that reciprocity norms are found in __________ non-human animals.
all, some (but not all)
In one well-known study of helping behavior, researchers examined helping among a sample of theology students. Students were either (a) put under time pressure or not put under time pressure and (b) expecting to give a speech about the parable of the (very helpful) Good Samaritan or expecting to give a speech about something else. What did the researchers find?
In this study, helping was not affected by the speech manipulation.
Pluralistic ignorance is MOST likely to occur
when you are with a group of strangers.
As discussed in the textbook, when people encounter situations in which their help might be needed, there are five major steps they pass through before ultimately deciding to render help (or not render help). At which step(s) can the presence of others interfere (and reduce the likelihood of helping)?
Steps 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (noticing the situation, interpreting the situation as an emergency, and taking responsibility, deciding how to help, and helping)
The so-called prisoner's dilemma is a paradigm that is used by social psychologists to study people's tendency
to compete with others versus cooperate with others.
As described in the textbook, social psychologists have tended to think about obedience as __________, but obedience __________.
almost always antisocial, can have prosocial or antisocial consequences.
Research indicates that in societies where there is an intact rule of law, people
According to the textbook authors, social psychologists have long viewed conformity as __________; newer research __________.
having negative consequences, indicates that it is usually prosocial.
People who forgive others tend to have
better physical and mental health than people who hold grudges.
Recall Milgram's classic research on obedience to authority. One interesting finding here was that numerous participants who went ahead and administered shocks at relatively high levels
showed general signs of intense distress while doing so.
Research on gender and helping indicates that male helpers tend to __________; and that female helpers tend to __________.
help females more than males, do the same
When it comes to helping others, how do humans compare other animals?
Humans help both kin and non-kin, while other animals tend to help kin only.
Being able to feel another person's pain is a characteristic of
Suppose that you are in an emergency situation and need help. Social psychological research suggests that your BEST bet is to
identify a particular person, tell him or her that you need help, and tell him or her precisely what to do.
Research on forgiveness in relationships indicates that
more forgiveness ultimately leads to better relationships.
Egoistic helping is motivated by __________ and the end goal is to __________.
personal distress, reduce one's own distress
When communication is difficult in a prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation
Which of the following hypotheses looks at helping behavior as truly unselfish in nature?
Altruistic helping is motivated by __________ and the end goal is to __________.
empathy, reduce others' distress
In his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram found that roughly __________ of participants eventually "went all the way" and administered the highest levels of shocks. Interestingly, a group of psychiatrists surveyed prior to the study estimated that __________ would do so.
65%, less than 1%
Conformity to social norms is likely to be highest when
when others are watching you.
According to the hypothesis, people help others to relieve their own distress
negative state relief
You are driving to school and notice that there is an injured dog lying on the side of the road-presumably the victim of a hit-and-run. You are in a very busy part of town, however, so you decide that your help probably isn't needed (someone else will attend to the dog and call for help, if they haven't already). Social psychologists would say that __________ prevented you from helping in this case.
diffusion of responsibility
Both pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility contribute to
the bystander effect.
In general, in which of the following situations are women more likely to offer help than men?
In close relationships
During the hurricane and subsequent flooding in New Orleans several years ago, survivors reported that they were much more likely to search for displaced family members than for friends. This finding supports the idea of
Which of the following is an example of a zero-sum game?
A game in which one person must lose in order for another person to win.
In lay terms, the term "conformity" refers to
going along with the crowd.
In social psychology, the story of Kitty Genovese's murder has been closely linked with the study of
Someone who is high on the dimension of belief in a just world would be MOST likely to agree with a statement like
"People who are in jail right now deserve to be there."
The political scientist Robert Axelrod once held a computer tournament designed to determine the most successful strategy for approaching the prisoner's dilemma (the strategy that would win out most often on a sustained basis). What he found was that the most successful strategy was loosely based on
a pattern of reciprocity.
According to evolutionary theory, it can be adaptive for people to help others who share their genes. This idea is known as
The fact that people experience survivor guilt suggests that
the human psyche has a deep sensitivity to unfairness.
Standards that are established by society regarding what types of behavior are typical or expected are known as __________.
Research using fMRI to assess brain activity has found that the brain's reaction is __________ when people receive electric shocks compared to when they watch their romantic partners receive shocks.
about the same
Stanley Milgram's classic research on obedience to authority was spurred on by--and conducted in the wake of--__________.
WWII and the Holocaust.
Alicia and her friends are singing karaoke. Alicia is an extremely talented singer-much better than her friends. She feels awkward about being so good, however, so she sort of "fakes bad"; she doesn't want her friends to be envious of her singing talent. Social psychologists would say that Alicia is experiencing
sensitivity about being the target of threatening upward comparison.
Which of the following is/are motivated by empathy?
Equity and equality are two types of __________.
In social psychology, the tendency for people to be less likely to offer help when they are in the presence of others than when they aren't is known as
the bystander effect.
A society in which people respect and follow the rules is said to have an effective
rule of law.
In Vohs et al.'s (2006) experiments, people who had been primed with a screensaver of dollar bills tended to than people who had a blank screen or a fish screensaver image as a prime.
be less likely to help others
Research with humans and monkeys on fairness-and the concepts of being overbenefited versus underbenefited-indicates that
humans worry about both, while monkeys worry primarily about the latter.
Research on domestic violence indicates that being an abusive spouse is __________ to being an abusive
parent, and that being a victim of child abuse is __________ to being an abusive parent in adulthood.
Which of the following has been associated with high levels of aggression?
Low levels of serotonin
Social psychologists Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen found that, in the US, men from the South tend to
respond to insults more aggressively compared to men from the North. They argued that a key reason for the
difference is the fact that
there is a southern culture of honor.
The idea that people aggress to try to get what they want promotes an understanding of aggression as
a form of social influence.
In cultures of honor, __________ seems to be the primary cause of violence.
At the most general level, the term antisocial behavior refers to
behavior that damages relationships or is culturally undesirable.
Research on the weapons effect shows that this effect occurs __________.
through a non-conscious, automatic process
Violent people tend to score high on __________.
When people ban together in large groups, wear uniforms, don masks, call themselves by numbers rather
than names, or otherwise engage in actions that make them feel anonymous they are said to be engaging in
Empirical research leads to the conclusion that
violent media exposure increases aggressive behavior.
When male rats are under stress, they respond by either fighting or running away (i.e., with the fight or
flight syndrome). By contrast, female rats respond with
the tend and befriend syndrome.
Thad is angry at his football coach for making him sit out the next game. Thad talks about his coach behind
the coach's back to the other players. Thad is displaying aggression.
Compared to societies that do not have a culture of honor, societies that do have a culture of honor tend
place relatively high value on respect and virtue.
Much research has examined the link between crime and climate. This research has found that _________
are more common in hot regions than in cool regions.
only violent crimes
As discussed in the textbook, the Freudian theory of aggression
seems to be basically incorrect.
Research on detecting lying concludes that
most people cannot tell when someone is lying to them.
Recent data on violence in the world suggests that
it is decreasing over time.
Consider the hostile attribution bias, the hostile perception bias, and the hostile expectation bias. People
who are characteristically aggressive tend to show __________ more than people who aren't.
all thee biases
Which of the following comes closest to the way that most social psychologists define aggression?
Any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid harm.
What do most experts today say about the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
Most agree that frustration and aggression are strongly linked, but most disagree with the idea that one
always involves the other.
The proposal that "the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration
[and] the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression" is known as __________.
the frustration-aggression hypothesis
As discussed in the textbook, sexually coercive men (men who commit date rapes or stranger rapes) tend
Jayson is walking down a busy sidewalk, when someone going the opposite direction bumps into him.
Jayson thinks the person meant to bump him to be rude. Jayson is MOST clearly exhibiting the
hostile attribution bias.
Your textbook argues that violent video games are than violent television
more likely to promote aggression
Research suggests that __________ is/are associated with DECREASED aggression.
both eating fewer fried foods and sugary foods and taking vitamins
Injunctive norms are norms that
specify what others approve of or disapprove of.
Are humans instinctively violent? It would be MOST accurate to say
that humans are naturally somewhat violent, but that society can significantly change and shape
Which of the following is an example of a descriptive norm?
Most people do not go outside without clothes on.
Research indicates that violence is MOST associated with
grandiose, inflated opinions of oneself.
Research suggests that people often learn to behave in particular ways based on modeling (observing and
copying others' behaviors). Which of the following statements BEST describes how aggressive and non-
aggressive models work?
Aggressive models can increase aggressive behavior and non-aggressive models can decrease it.
The tend and befriend syndrome is
a female pattern of responding to general stress.
The weapons effect refers to
the tendency for simply seeing weapons to increase aggression.
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate regarding testosterone?
It is chronically higher among aggressive people than non-aggressive people, and it can be temporarily
elevated by aggressive cues.
When it comes to paying their bills, eating a healthy diet, obeying traffic laws, showing up on time for
work, and other mundane life tasks, people who are habitually aggressive
tend to show much lower levels of self-control than people who aren't (e.g., tending to pay bills late).
According to your text, intelligence reports the conclusion that the war in Iraq
has increased the threat of terrorism worldwide.
Albert Bandura's "Bobo doll" research provided support for
social learning theory.
Tina watches a film in which the main character aggressively yells at his mother when he doesn't get what
he wants. Later that day, Tina yells at her own mother in a similar way after failing to get something she
wants. The process at play here, according to social learning theorists, is __________.
Are abused children more likely than children who are non-abused to abuse their own children when they
Yes-although most abused children do NOT grow up to be abusers, they are more likely to become
abusers than non-abused children.
Research suggests that, in general, alcohol tends to increase aggression only
when people are exposed to provocations or frustrations.
Jayson is eating lunch alone at a restaurant. He sees two people talking animatedly, and interprets it as
arguing. Jayson is exhibiting the
hostile perception bias.
The main difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression lies in
the motive(s) of the aggressor.
Maureen is really frustrated that the contractor working on her house is taking so long. But she doesn't
want to yell at him because she is worried he will not produce quality work for her if she does. Instead, she
yells and snipes at her husband. Maureen's aggression is
Alcohol reduces the amount of throughout the brain and body, which reduces the level of energy
available for self-control.
The textbook defines violence as __________ that __________ extreme harm, such as injury or death.
a type of aggression, is intended to cause
Suppose that Patrick is taking a yoga class that is very hot (his teacher keeps all the doors closed and turns
the heat on), while Raphael is taking a yoga class that is cooler (his teacher turns the heat off and opens the
windows to let a breeze in). Is Patrick more likely to become surly and aggressive after class?
Only if he is provoked or frustrated by something
Based on the definitions that are given in the textbook, it would be MOST likely to describe cheating,
stealing, and littering as
Social psychologists define aggression in a very specific way. According to that definition, which of the
following is NOT an example of aggression?
A disgruntled employee who fantasizes about shouting at his boss
Allison is at the beach, trying to enjoy herself. However, several unpleasant environmental factors are
interfering; the air is polluted (there are several huge ships nearby), the beach is extremely noisy, and there is
a foul odor that is disturbing the peace. All of these factors make it more likely that she will behave
aggressively later in the day. This is because
they have put her in a bad mood.
Deindividuation tends to reduce
Which of the following is NOT an explanation for alcohol's effects on aggression?
People don't expect alcohol to make them aggressive.
Mr. Tully, the principal at an all-boys boarding school, has instituted a number of policies in order to try
to curb violence and aggression among his students. Based on the research in social psychology, which of
these policies will probably be ineffective?
Encouraging aggressive sports, so that students can release their aggression.
Research on prejudice and self-esteem suggests that
people may hold prejudices, in part, because doing so bolsters their self-esteem.
Compared to when two individuals compete, when two groups of people compete, they tend to be extreme
and hostile. This is known as
the discontinuity effect.
Which of the following comes closest to the textbook's conclusion regarding the elimination of prejudice?
While it is possible to meaningfully reduce specific prejudices, the tendencies for stereotyping and
ingroup favoritism appear to be innate.
The idea that regular interactions among members of different groups reduce prejudice, so long as the
interactions occur under favorable conditions, is known as
the contact hypothesis.
Which of the following provides evidence of stereotype threat?
Women perform worse than men on math tests when they believe that the test is important, but they perform the same as men when they believe that the test is meaningless.
Compared to others, obese people tend to be rated as __________.
less attractive, less successful, less hardworking, and less intelligent).
Randi believes that, compared to white people, Asian people are spiritual. It would be MOST accurate to
say that Randi's belief is an example of
It would be MOST accurate to say that aversive racism captures the idea that
people often have mixed feelings toward other groups and sometimes harbor prejudices despite
Research on prejudice against lesbian and gay people has shown that, in general,
gay men experience more prejudice than lesbian women.
Researchers Darley and Gross (1983) showed different groups of people identical videotape footage of "Hannah," a girl who was said to come either from an impoverished background or from a wealthy background. They found that people stereotyped the girl as intellectually inferior when they were led to believe that she came from an impoverished background. However, this stereotype emerged only when participants saw footage of Hannah performing ambiguously on an oral exam. This finding is BEST explained by the concept of
the confirmation bias.
__________ refer to characteristics of people that are considered socially unacceptable-for example,
mental illnesses, disabilities, or scars.
Research has demonstrated that eyewitnesses are more accurate at identifying people of their own racial or
ethnic group than they are at identifying people of other ethnic or racial groups. This tendency is MOST
related to the so-called
"outgroup homogeneity bias."
Most people assume that outgroup members are relatively similar to one another, while ingroup members
are relatively different from one another. This tendency is known as
the outgroup homogeneity bias.
People who belong to a different category from yourself are
When people try to hide, or control, their implicit prejudices, it takes a toll on their ability to __________ when it comes to other tasks.
According to the textbook, one critical reason why people hold on to their stereotypes-even in the face
of refuting evidence-is that they tend to view pieces of refuting evidence as "exceptions," which constitute
their own (new) categories. That is, they tend to create __________.
Social psychologists use the term __________ to refer to unequal treatment of different people based on the
groups or categories to which they belong.
The idea that people blame their problems and misfortunes on outgroups, and hold negative attitudes toward outgroups accordingly, is known as __________.
Countries that value competition have levels of conflict and levels of economic success.
The so-called "minimal group effect" MOST directly suggests that
people are predisposed to divide the world into "us" and "them," and to show a preference for "us."
Men tend to be rated less positively when they are seated next to an obese woman than when they are
seated next to an average-weight woman. This tendency is known as
stigma by association.
Suppose that Aretha grew up in New York, but currently works in California as a Human Resources
Director. While she tries to be unbiased when reviewing job applications, she knows that she has a tendency
to favor New York applicants over other applicants. That is, she tends to engage in __________
White people who are prejudiced against blacks, but externally motivated to respond without prejudice, tend to behave in unprejudiced ways when trying to look good or say the right thing in the presence of others. Right after being released from such pressure, they
tend to respond with a backlash and actually express more prejudice than usual.
Research suggests that, in general, prejudiced people and non-prejudiced people differ from one another in terms of
their conscious responses to other groups.
Jussim and Harber's (2005) research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and in the classroom found that
the effects are quite small--teacher expectations are accurate.
The outgroup homogeneity effect appears to stem from the fact that
people have limited contact and experience with outgroup members.
If something is said to be "salient," then it
stands out and is noticeable or memorable.
What does the textbook suggest about the accuracy of common stereotypes-do they seem to contain a
kernel of truth?
Most common stereotypes are fairly accurate both in terms of their content and in terms of the supposed
magnitude of their effects.
As discussed in the textbook, people are MOST likely to base their stereotypes of a given outgroup on
what they have heard about the outgroup from members of the ingroup.
According to the textbook, are the tendencies to engage in object categorization and social categorization
(regardless of content) tendencies that seem to be innately programmed in people, or tendencies that seem to
be culturally learned?
Both seem to be innately programmed.
Which of the following statements BEST summarizes the relationship between salience and stereotype formation?
Stereotypes can form simply on the basis of salience.
Do implicit or explicit prejudiced attitudes do a better job of predicting workplace discrimination in hiring practices?
Implicit attitudes are more predictive.
Social psychologists use the term __________ to describe the feeling of fear that people sometimes have that they will confirm a certain stereotype.
Mark is a Southern gentleman. He always stands up when a woman enters the room and offers her his chair. He is quick to get the doors for his female companions, and he always pays when they go out. Mark is probably high on
In a well-known study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), schoolteachers were told that certain of their students-who were in fact chosen by the researchers at random-were "intellectual bloomers" and had tremendous academic potential. When these students were tested at the end of the year, it was found that their IQ scores had indeed significantly increased (presumably as a result of the special attention and treatment they had received from their teachers). This research MOST clearly demonstrates
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Suppose that Ms. J. is a third-grade teacher. In her classroom, she requires that students study together in small, multiethnic workgroups, in which each group member is responsible for collecting and communicating to fellow group members a different type of information. It appears that Ms. J. is using the cooperative learning technique known as __________.
the jigsaw classroom
Suppose that Paul is gay, but he does not fit your stereotype of gay people: He wears baggy jeans,
constantly swears, has sloppy table manners, and enjoys sports. Instead of changing the way you think about
gay people as a group, however, you just decide that Paul belongs to a special class of gay people ("gay
jocks"). This would be an example of
As described in the textbook, college students sometimes stereotype female professors as less competent than male professors. However, this stereotype only seems to surface
when students are evaluated negatively by a female professor.
Suppose that some people have just been randomly assigned to two different teams. Research suggests
that these people would be likely to exhibit discriminatory behavior (favoring the ingroup, and disfavoring the
immediately, as soon as the groups had been defined.
As discussed in the textbook, stereotyping is BEST thought of as
a consequence of the human tendency for social categorization.
Whereas the self-fulfilling prophecy states that people often end up doing exactly what they expect they will do, or fear that they will do, the self-defeating prophecy states that people often end up __________ what they expect they will do, or fear that they will do.
doing the exact opposite of
Research suggests that, by and large, stereotypes function as
expectations or hypotheses.
Researchers have examined whether obese men and women earn less than others, controlling for the same
set of qualifications. This has shown that
obesity negatively impacts both men and women, but especially women.
Which of the following is the BEST definition of "stereotyping"?
Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits.
If discrimination is a behavior, then a stereotype is __________ and a prejudice is __________.
a cognition, an affect
Because realistic conflict theory describes people competing over scarce resources, one could argue that it
is simply theory applied to group conflict.
Recall Muzafer Sherif's research with two groups of 11-year boys camping at Robber's Cave (the "Eagles"
and the "Rattlers"). Which of the following theories BEST accounts for the kind of prejudice that existed
between these groups?
Realistic conflict theory
The term __________ is used to refer to a negative attitude or feeling toward an individual based solely on
that individual's membership in a certain group.
Research suggests that stereotyping __________ allow people to save mental energy __________ enable
them to process information more quickly.
does, and does
Implicit prejudiced attitudes are
fairly common and do a good job of predicting behavior.
In a well-known study using archival data, researchers Hovland and Sears found that-in the southern U.S., between 1882 and 1930-there was a statistically significant correlation between the market price of cotton and the frequency of interracial lynching incidents. This study has typically been interpreted as supporting
Researchers Plant and Devine have identified two basic motives that people have for overcoming prejudice: internal and external. According to these researchers, the internal motive is based on
a strong inner belief that prejudice is wrong.
Which of the following refers to the tendency that some people have to simultaneously (a) hold egalitarian
values, and (b) experience negative feelings, or feelings of disease, when interacting with minority groups?
In Muzafer Sherif's research with 11-year-old boys at a summer camp in Robber's Cave, it was found that
__________ tended to increase prejudice, while __________ tended to reduce it.
competition, superordinate goals
When you meet a new person, stereotypes typically serve to
provide you with hypotheses to be tested about that individual.
In the context of realistic conflict theory, the term "superordinate goal" refers to a goal that
can be achieved only by cooperating and working with others.
Research suggests that group decision-making is superior to individual decision-making
when group members work independently and consolidate their thinking afterwards.
In Kipnis research, high power managers tended to see their workers as
undeserving of credit for their accomplishments.
The term __________ refers to a process by which members of a small group remember different kinds of information (as opposed to the same type of information).
Jayne can't stand her Chemistry instructor. Whenever anyone questions the instructor, the instructor just goes nuts and gets really nasty. She doesn't care about student situations-one time a student was injured in a car accident on the way to the chemistry exam and even though the student called as soon as possible, she wouldn't let her make up the test. Which of Mayer's three criteria for a dangerous leader does the chemistry instructor NOT have?
grandiose sense of entitlement
Social psychologists use the term __________ to refer to explanations that are used to help justify inequalities in power.
Social loafing is also known as
the free rider problem.
We should expect social loafing to be greatly reduced when
people are held accountable for their inputs.
Which of the following is an example of group polarization?
A political committee tends to make more extreme decisions than any of its individual members would alone.
Unlike groups that are merely social groups, cultural groups
The so-called bad apple effect refers to the idea that
one social loafer can cause others to loaf as well.
Of the following people, who is likely to be MOST inspired to perform well when he knows that others are watching?
Chris, who is a narcissist
Research on diversity in groups indicates that, compared to more homogenous groups, diverse groups tend to
be more creative.
According to optimal distinctiveness theory, people like it MOST when they feel
somewhat similar to others, but also somewhat distinct from others.
Rohit is a very good golfer when he is alone, and an excellent golfer when he is with others. In the language of social facilitation theory, playing golf well appears to be a(n) __________ for Rohit.
A collection of at LEAST two people who are being or doing something together is known as a __________.
A group is especially prone to develop groupthink if
there is a strong, directive group leader.
__________ is a form of creative thinking in groups, using a procedure in which all group members are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible.
Which of the following is the MOST accurate summary of social facilitation theory?
The presence of others increases the dominant response tendency.
As discussed in the textbook, human groups are
both social and cultural.
Optimal distinctiveness theory is concerned with the tension people experience
between trying to be similar to everyone in the group and trying to be different from others.
Which of the following reasons does your text offer to explain why people low in power tend to laugh more often?
Laughter is a good strategy for making friends.
When people punish others who cheat the system, even when doing so involves making sacrifices or suffering, they are said to be engaging in
Self-censorship is associated with
Leaders that focus on boosting morale, taking care of group members, and promoting group spirit are
Early research in social psychology conducted by Max Ringlemann revealed that people __________ when they work as part of a group (e.g., pushing a car off of the road with two other people) compared to when they work alone at the same task.
do not work as hard
The term group polarization refers to a phenomenon whereby
groups tend to make more extreme decisions than individuals do (whether extremely risky or "extremely something else").
The concept of __________ was an early iteration of the notion of group polarization.
the term __________ was introduced by Irving Janis in the 1970's to refer to a style of thought in which the group clings to a shared but flawed view of the world.
A high quality leader must be
both task and relationship oriented.
While many modern offices make use of open shared spaces (rather than cubicles or offices), this office style can hinder productivity. Indeed, this office style is likely to be particularly bad for employees who work on
complex, novel tasks
Social psychologists have coined the term __________ to refer to loss of self-awareness and loss of individual accountability that people sometimes experience or feel in a group.
Groups are UNLIKELY to develop groupthink if
the group members do not have a strong bond with one another.
In one of the earliest social psychological experiments to be conducted, Triplett examined the records of teams of cyclists. He found that cyclists who raced against each other __________ than those who raced alone (against the clock).
cycled more quickly
Based on research on social facilitation, we should expect that-all else being equal-children who work on a set of easy puzzles alone will __________ than children who work on the same puzzles side by side in a big group of other children.
work more slowly
People are LESS likely to engage in the commons dilemma when
they communicate with others.
Decisions that are made by committee tend to be less-than-optimal. This is mostly because such decisions
are usually based on limited information.
Research on diversity in groups indicates that, compared to more homogenous groups, diverse groups tend to
have lower group morale.
A traditional economist-who believes that humans always behave in rational, self-interested way-would be MOST shocked to learn about the human tendency for
Based on early research by Norman Triplett with racing cyclists, we should expect that people who exercise on rowing machines at gyms, among other people, would be more likely to __________ than people who exercise on the same machines in the privacy of their homes.
burn more calories
__________ is the tendency for shared or jointly owned resources to be wasted, or used in a less-than-optimal way.
The commons dilemma
Narcissists are ____ likely to become leaders, and ____ likely to remain successful leaders for a long period of time.
Research suggests that, in the business world, the most successful chief executive officers (CEOs) are those who are resolute and persistent in their opinions, as well as
modest or humble.
People tend to reduce effort when working in a group, as opposed to when working alone. This phenomenon is known as __________.
Most research suggests that-compared to when several people think up ideas independently-when people work together and brainstorm as a group they tend to have __________ morale and to come up with __________ ideas total.
Galinsky et al. found that power seems to create a state of mind that favors
In a nutshell, the research on diversity in groups indicates that
diversity presents numerous challenges, but can sometimes be a plus.
As discussed in the textbook, when a group experiences a shared emotional experience (whether positive or negative), they tend to feel __________. When they are given a name or badge that identifies them as a group they tend to feel __________.
more united, more united as well
Which of the following is NOT one of the symptoms of groupthink?
People within the group routinely play "devil's advocate" and argue against their usual point of view.
After decades of research on the effect that others have on task performance, social psychologists have concluded that the presence of others
has mixed effects, because it elicits a person's dominant response.
As described in the textbook, __________ was at the core of the fascist movements of the first half of the twentieth century.
High power people tend to
think outside the box.
Cockroaches tend to run faster than usual in an easy maze when they are being watched by their peers (other cockroaches). This finding illustrates that, even among cockroaches,
social facilitation happens for dominant responses.
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