172 terms

PoliSci Final

The idea that ordinary people have a right and a duty to participate in public affairs is the essential component of the ideal of
self government
Women gained the right to vote in
The poll tax was used to
disenfranchise African Americans in the South
The frequency of elections in the USA reduces voter turnout by
making it harder for Americans to participate in elections by having elections more often at inconvenient times
Unlike in many other democracies, elections held in the United States are traditionally held on
One of the reasons why voter turnout is lower in the US than in Western European countries is that
great individual responsibility
eligibility/registration requirements
Voter registration in the US
is an individual responsibility
has been a device to discourage some groups from voting
Civic duty/apathy are attitudes usually acquired from
one's parents
Education/income affect voter turnout
because Americans with lower income and less education are less likely to be registered to vote
The chief obstacle to American's participation in community activities is the
lack of motivation to join in and get involved
Voter registration cards find most support among
When it comes to protest activities, a majority of Americans are
against protesting despite America's tradition of free expression
Voting is
a restricted, widespread form of political participation that gives citizens control but gives the government control over the citizens
Protest activity is a reversal pattern of voting in that
protests attract more younger participants while voting attracts more older participants
Historically speaking, the states with the restrictive voting registration laws are concentrated in which region?
Citizens in which of the following countries are most likely to volunteer time/money to promote community causes?
United States
18, 19, and 20 yr olds were granted the right to vote in
In the US, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the
Since the 1960s, the level of turnout for presidential elections has average ____ percent.
What issue has done the most to bring young Americans to the voting booth in the 21st century?
Iraq War
_______ elections tend to draw the largest percent of voters in the US.
Political parties serve
to connect citizens with the government/link people to their elected leaders
give voters a chance to influence the direction of the government
The first American political parties emerged from the conflict between
Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson
small landholders v. commercial/wealthy interests
If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that
major parties will focus on the issue and try to gain the minor party's supporters
The major reason for the persistence of the American two-party system is
because this system prevents minor parties from gaining power
The history of democratic government is virtually synonymous with the history of
Characteristics od party realignment
1)disruption of existing political order because of emergence of unusually powerful issue
2)election in which voters switch shift their support strongly toward one party
3)major change in policy by newly dominant party
4)enduring change in party coalitions
Which of the following encourages two major parties to build broad coalitions?
Two-party system requires each party to accommodate a wide range of interests
The issue of slavery gave birth to the _____ party as a major political party.
The Democratic Party's long time regional stronghold, "The Solid South", stemmed from a realignment during which historical period?
Civil War
Which od the following is an indication of strong party loyalty?
straight ticket voting
Prospective voting is characterized by
voting based on what a candidate promises to do if elected
__________ is based on judgment about past performance of an elected.
Retrospective voting
________ lost the 1964 presidential election in a landslide because his views were seen as too extreme.
Barry Goldwater
________ does not have a competitive multiparty system.
United States
What party has made big gains in recent decades among white fundamentalist Christians, based on its position on topics like abortion and school prayer?
Which of the following groups is most closely aligned with the Democratic party, voting about 85% Democratic in presidential elections?
African Americans
Which of the following is NOT typically apart of the Democratic coalition?
white fundamentalist Christians
_________ was the only Republican elected president from 1932-1964.
Dwight Eisenhower
In the 2008 presidential election, ________ used the internet most successfully to attract followers/raise donations.
Barack Obama
Most states conduct _____ primaries.
Which of the following are key players in modern campaigns?
political consultants
James Carville, Dick Morris, and Roger Ailes are examples of
campaign strategies
During the 20th century, American parties lost their complete control over
Which of the following represents the greatest blow to the organizational strength of US parties?
primary election (direct primary)
Candidate-centered politics encourages
1)more opportunities for newcomers to gain office faster
2)national officers to be more responsive to local interests
3)flexibility to electoral politics (candidates can quickly respond/adjust)
On average, how much money must a US Senator raise every week of his/her six year term in order to acquire enough money to launch a competitive bid for reelection?
Which of the following statements about the patronage system is true?
when a party won control over the government, it controlled nearly all public jobs and gave those to loyal party workers
it was a way of rewarding loyal party supporters
About 95% of all political activists work at
the local level
The election of ____ represented a party realignment.
Abraham Lincoln was first elected in 1860 with _____ percent of the popular vote.
The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is
the pluralist theory
According to James Madison, the source of most factions is the
(unequal distribution of) property
The most fully organized interest are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?
economic self interest
Citizens interest groups are distinguished from economic interest groups by the fact that
their goal is based on purposive incentive, not material incentive
An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of
single issue group
Some groups pursue collective goods. A collective good is one that
belongs to all and cannot be granted/withheld on an individual basis
A flaw in the pluralist theory is that
it claims that the group system is representative
An amicus brief is
a written document in which a group explains to a court its position on a legal dispute that the court is handling
Effective inside lobbying is based upon
close relationships between Congress members and lobbyists
PACs tend to contribute the most money to
congressional campaigns
In recent decades, lobbyists in D.C. have increasingly
lobbied the executive branch
The influence of interest groups through the courts occurs through
lawsuits and efforts to influence the selection of federal judges
The term iron triangle refers to
small/informal/stable groups of bureaucrats, lobbyists, and legislators who seek to develop policies beneficial to a particular interest
Grassroots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to
pressure designed to convince government officials that a group's policy position has popular support
The limits of interest groups' influence might be gauged by the Democratic backlash against the _____, which tried to block the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1993.
Member of ____ generate more mail to Congress than any other group.
Another name for an interest group is
pressure group
special interest
organized interest
During his visit to this country in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville described the US as a "nation of ______"
The citizens of _____ are most actively involved in interest groups/community causes.
Which of the following organizations is NOT an example of a single-issue group?
NAACP, NOW, La Raza, ACU, ADA, Christian Coalition of America, PIRGs, etc.
The air we breathe is an example of a
collective good
The dominant labor interest group is
The news provides a refracted version of reality because it
provides an account of dramatic, obtruding events that are timely and excludes slow, steady processes from reports
In comparison with today's newspapers, early American newspapers
were supported by political parties
The yellow journalism of the late 19th century was characterized by
sensationalism/inaccurate writings to sell papers
Objective journalism is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to
report the facts and fairly present both sides of partisan debate
The term "framing" is used to describe
the selecting of certain aspects of reality and making them the most salient part of communication, conveying a particular interpretation of a situation
At which of the following times did the American media step back from their watchdog role?
After 9/11
How has the internet affected the watchdog capacity of the media?
It has expanded the watchdog role
The media perform the signaling role by
informing the public ASAP about developments after they happen
Which institution receives the most new coverage from national press?
Watergate scandal illustrates the
power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuse of power
Agenda-setting is an action that falls under which major role played by the press?
signaling function
On both radio/TV, most successful partisan talk shows
have been hosted by conservatives
Which of the following statements is true?
Objective journalism is based on communication of facts and fairness
The Gazette of the US was founded to promote the policies of President
George Washington
Which of the following statements has been shown by scholarly research to be true?
Most journalists tend to lean Democratic in their personal beliefs.
Traditional media does not have a substantial/systematic liberal bias.
Networks prefer to cover more negative topics.
Congressional staffers spend most of their time on
constituency and public relations
Legislation whose tangible benefits are targeted solely at a particular legislator's constituency is
pork-barrel legislation/projects
Compared with the Senate majority leader, the Speaker of the House has more power because
the Speaker is the chamber's presiding officer and has clear power over the House of Reps.
In contrast with the Speaker of the House, the Senate majority leader is
not the chamber's presiding officer and is equal to other Senate members
What is a standing committee in the House/Senate?
When the House/Senate pass different versions of a bill, the differences are resolved by a
conference committee
One must be ___ yrs of age to serve in the US House of Reps. and ___ yrs of age to serve in the US Senate.
The second most powerful federal official (after the president) is often said to be the
Speaker of the House
Senators are generally are less likely to take directions from their leaders than the House because
there are less members of Senate than the House, and Senate members are more likely to view themselves as equals with their leaders
Most of the legislative work of Congress is performed by
standing committees
Which nation does NOT have a one-house dominant legislature?
Through a vote for cloture, the Senate
limits the time for bill debate and beats filibusters
Congress typically takes presidential proposals
into consideration but does not always adopt them
By and large, partisanship is
the philosophical and political difference that define that parties
(A huge source of cohesion and division within Congress)
What is the biggest reason that Congress does not vigorously pursue its oversight function?
The task is extremely demanding because there are thousands of agencies and programs to oversee.
3 Major functions of Congress's policymaking role
Bills are formally introduced in Congress by
committee hearings
Most of the work done on legislation in Congress is done by
standing committees
News media coverage of Congress and the President is
focused more on the President than Congress
There are currently ____ voting members of the US House of Reps. and ____ voting members of the US Senate.
What is the strategy employed in the Senate to prevent a bill from coming to a vote?
Which of the following statements is true?
Roll-call voting, in more recent times, has divided along party lines.
The split in the parties is most evident on major domestic legislation.
The trading of votes between members of Congress so that each gets the legislation he/she wants is called
Committees kill more than ___ percent of all bills submitted to Congress
A bill has been approved in the House and the Senate, albeit in slightly different versions. The bill now goes to
conference committees
What percent of state legislators are women?
about 20%
The president's constitutional roles, such as chief exec. and commander in chief,
have expanded in practice
The president's role in foreign policy increased largely because of
WWII and the emergence of America as a world power (new role in international role)
Which of the following is true of the vice presidency?
No direct power is assigned to the VP by the constitution; VP power depends on the President
President Obama's failure in his early months in office to enact policies to combat global warming, despite his determination to do so, is reflective primarily of
force of circumstance
The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in
Which of the following did the framers want from a president?
national leadership
statesmanship in foreign affairs
commander in war time
enforcement/administration of laws
The presidency was created by Article ____ of the US Constitution
Which of the following presidents failed to win an electoral majority but still won the presidency?
George W. Bush
Rutherford B. Hayes
Benjamin Harris
After which party convention sis the Democrats force major changes in the presidential nominating process?
Which president did NOT serve as a state governor before being president
Obama, Kennedy, Nixon, Johnson, Eisenhower, Ford, George H. W. Bush
Which of the following is part of the EOP?
White House Office (WHO)
Office of Management Budget (OMB)
National Security Council (NSC)
Constitutional requirements for being president
35 years old
natural born US citizen
US resident for 14 years
The presidency is
an office of conditional power that depends one the president's abilities, congressional/public support, & circumstance
A president's accomplishments have largely depended on
force of circumstance
stage of the president's term
nature of the issue
support/lack of support from the public
The honeymoon period occurs during
the first months
Political scientist Aaron Wildavsky's "two presidencies" thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with Congress on policy involving
foreign issues/policy
The forced removal of a president from office through impeachment and conviction require action by the
House (vote to impeach) and the Senate (conducts trial, votes to remove or not)
Which of the following is a principle of bureaucratic organization?
hierarchical authority
job specialization
formalized rules
A president's policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president has
public support
Compared to the President & Congress, the bureaucracy
has a more direct impact on the everyday lives of Americans
Federal regulatory agencies have responsibility primarily in the area of
economic activity
Most federal employees are hired on the basis of
the merit system
Federal civil service employees cannot legally
go on strike
Policy implementation refers to the bureaucratic function of
carrying out the decisions made by the courts, Congress, and the President
As distinct from the patronage system, the merit system for managing the bureaucracy
is neutral because people are hired based on skills and they are not partisan appointees
When it was developed during the Jackson administration, the patronage system was designed to
tie the administration of government to the people by filling administrative offices with supporters of the winning party
the administrative concept of neutral competence holds that the bureaucracy should
be neutral in that employees are not partisan employees and should serve everyone
Bureaucrats tend to follow
the agency that they are from
The federal bureaucracy today is
90% merit-based with some patronage employees
When an individual believes that he/she was improperly disadvantaged by a bureaucrat's decision and contests the decision, the dispute is usually handled by a(n)
administrative law judge
Legally the bureaucracy derives general authority for its programs from
acts of Congress
The Department of _______ was created in 2002
Homeland Security
The cabinet department with the largest number of full time civilian employees is the Department of
The Department of _____ was founded in 1889
The number of employees in the federal bureaucracy is about
2.5 million
The chief way that administrative agencies exercise power over policy is through
determining how a law will work in practice (rulemaking)
Bureaucracy is best characterized in terms of
hierarchical authority
job specialization
formalized rules
The power of the Supreme Court is most apparent in its ability to
declare another institution's actions unconstitutional (judicial review)
A concurring opinion is
a separate view written by a justice who votes with the majority but disagrees with its reasoning
Compared with the decision of the Supreme Court, the opinion is more significant because it
explains the legal basis for the decision
Federal district courts
lowest federal courts, 94 total, 1 to 4 in each state, only federal courts in which both sides present their case to a jury
With regard to the lower courts, the Supreme Court's primary responsibility is
to establish legal precedent that will guide lower court decisions
US courts of appeals
second level of federal courts, 13 total, no juries, no new evidence, review trial court decision
Nearly 20% of all presidents' nominees to the Supreme Court have been rejected by Senate. The reason for most of the rejections before 1900 was
The long serving chief justice that established the principle of judicial review was
Chief Justice John Marshall
Know the facts of a judicial case
limit judicial action and limit which laws are applied to the case
The term 'stare decisis' refers to
An amicus curiae brief provides a court with the view held by
interest groups
With regard to public opinion, the Supreme Court
is less responsive to it but has made rulings to get public support or to reduce public resistance
Precedent, while not an absolute constraint on the courts, is needed to
maintain legal consistency so that principles of law can be applied to similar cases in a uniform fashion
The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison is significant
because it established the principle of judicial review
In Bush v. Gore (2002), the Supreme Court
showed partisanship by blocking a manual recount of the Florida presidential vote in 2000, assuring the election of Bush.
About ___ percent of the nation's legal cases are decided in state court systems.
The lowest level of the federal court system is the
US district courts
Opposition to the judiciary's creative policy-making role is a consistent tenet of judicial
In selecting judges, the states rely on what method?
appointing, elections, merit plan
_________ was the first black justice to serve on the Supreme Court
Thurgood Marshall
What is the most common method in the states for the selection of judges?
competitive election