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The idea that ordinary people have a right and a duty to participate in public affairs is the essential component of the ideal of

self government

Women gained the right to vote in


The poll tax was used to

disenfranchise African Americans in the South

The frequency of elections in the USA reduces voter turnout by

making it harder for Americans to participate in elections by having elections more often at inconvenient times

Unlike in many other democracies, elections held in the United States are traditionally held on


One of the reasons why voter turnout is lower in the US than in Western European countries is that

great individual responsibility
eligibility/registration requirements

Voter registration in the US

is an individual responsibility
has been a device to discourage some groups from voting

Civic duty/apathy are attitudes usually acquired from

one's parents

Education/income affect voter turnout

because Americans with lower income and less education are less likely to be registered to vote

The chief obstacle to American's participation in community activities is the

lack of motivation to join in and get involved

Voter registration cards find most support among


When it comes to protest activities, a majority of Americans are

against protesting despite America's tradition of free expression

Voting is

a restricted, widespread form of political participation that gives citizens control but gives the government control over the citizens

Protest activity is a reversal pattern of voting in that

protests attract more younger participants while voting attracts more older participants

Historically speaking, the states with the restrictive voting registration laws are concentrated in which region?


Citizens in which of the following countries are most likely to volunteer time/money to promote community causes?

United States

18, 19, and 20 yr olds were granted the right to vote in


In the US, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the


Since the 1960s, the level of turnout for presidential elections has average ____ percent.


What issue has done the most to bring young Americans to the voting booth in the 21st century?

Iraq War

_______ elections tend to draw the largest percent of voters in the US.


Political parties serve

to connect citizens with the government/link people to their elected leaders
give voters a chance to influence the direction of the government

The first American political parties emerged from the conflict between

Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson
small landholders v. commercial/wealthy interests

If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that

major parties will focus on the issue and try to gain the minor party's supporters

The major reason for the persistence of the American two-party system is

because this system prevents minor parties from gaining power

The history of democratic government is virtually synonymous with the history of


Characteristics od party realignment

1)disruption of existing political order because of emergence of unusually powerful issue
2)election in which voters switch shift their support strongly toward one party
3)major change in policy by newly dominant party
4)enduring change in party coalitions

Which of the following encourages two major parties to build broad coalitions?

Two-party system requires each party to accommodate a wide range of interests

The issue of slavery gave birth to the _____ party as a major political party.


The Democratic Party's long time regional stronghold, "The Solid South", stemmed from a realignment during which historical period?

Civil War

Which od the following is an indication of strong party loyalty?

straight ticket voting

Prospective voting is characterized by

voting based on what a candidate promises to do if elected

__________ is based on judgment about past performance of an elected.

Retrospective voting

________ lost the 1964 presidential election in a landslide because his views were seen as too extreme.

Barry Goldwater

________ does not have a competitive multiparty system.

United States

What party has made big gains in recent decades among white fundamentalist Christians, based on its position on topics like abortion and school prayer?


Which of the following groups is most closely aligned with the Democratic party, voting about 85% Democratic in presidential elections?

African Americans

Which of the following is NOT typically apart of the Democratic coalition?

white fundamentalist Christians

_________ was the only Republican elected president from 1932-1964.

Dwight Eisenhower

In the 2008 presidential election, ________ used the internet most successfully to attract followers/raise donations.

Barack Obama

Most states conduct _____ primaries.


Which of the following are key players in modern campaigns?

political consultants

James Carville, Dick Morris, and Roger Ailes are examples of

campaign strategies

During the 20th century, American parties lost their complete control over


Which of the following represents the greatest blow to the organizational strength of US parties?

primary election (direct primary)

Candidate-centered politics encourages

1)more opportunities for newcomers to gain office faster
2)national officers to be more responsive to local interests
3)flexibility to electoral politics (candidates can quickly respond/adjust)

On average, how much money must a US Senator raise every week of his/her six year term in order to acquire enough money to launch a competitive bid for reelection?


Which of the following statements about the patronage system is true?

when a party won control over the government, it controlled nearly all public jobs and gave those to loyal party workers
it was a way of rewarding loyal party supporters

About 95% of all political activists work at

the local level

The election of ____ represented a party realignment.


Abraham Lincoln was first elected in 1860 with _____ percent of the popular vote.


The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is

the pluralist theory

According to James Madison, the source of most factions is the

(unequal distribution of) property

The most fully organized interest are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?

economic self interest

Citizens interest groups are distinguished from economic interest groups by the fact that

their goal is based on purposive incentive, not material incentive

An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of

single issue group

Some groups pursue collective goods. A collective good is one that

belongs to all and cannot be granted/withheld on an individual basis

A flaw in the pluralist theory is that

it claims that the group system is representative

An amicus brief is

a written document in which a group explains to a court its position on a legal dispute that the court is handling

Effective inside lobbying is based upon

close relationships between Congress members and lobbyists

PACs tend to contribute the most money to

congressional campaigns

In recent decades, lobbyists in D.C. have increasingly

lobbied the executive branch

The influence of interest groups through the courts occurs through

lawsuits and efforts to influence the selection of federal judges

The term iron triangle refers to

small/informal/stable groups of bureaucrats, lobbyists, and legislators who seek to develop policies beneficial to a particular interest

Grassroots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to

pressure designed to convince government officials that a group's policy position has popular support

The limits of interest groups' influence might be gauged by the Democratic backlash against the _____, which tried to block the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1993.


Member of ____ generate more mail to Congress than any other group.


Another name for an interest group is

pressure group
special interest
organized interest

During his visit to this country in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville described the US as a "nation of ______"


The citizens of _____ are most actively involved in interest groups/community causes.


Which of the following organizations is NOT an example of a single-issue group?

NAACP, NOW, La Raza, ACU, ADA, Christian Coalition of America, PIRGs, etc.

The air we breathe is an example of a

collective good

The dominant labor interest group is


The news provides a refracted version of reality because it

provides an account of dramatic, obtruding events that are timely and excludes slow, steady processes from reports

In comparison with today's newspapers, early American newspapers

were supported by political parties

The yellow journalism of the late 19th century was characterized by

sensationalism/inaccurate writings to sell papers

Objective journalism is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to

report the facts and fairly present both sides of partisan debate

The term "framing" is used to describe

the selecting of certain aspects of reality and making them the most salient part of communication, conveying a particular interpretation of a situation

At which of the following times did the American media step back from their watchdog role?

After 9/11

How has the internet affected the watchdog capacity of the media?

It has expanded the watchdog role

The media perform the signaling role by

informing the public ASAP about developments after they happen

Which institution receives the most new coverage from national press?


Watergate scandal illustrates the

power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuse of power

Agenda-setting is an action that falls under which major role played by the press?

signaling function

On both radio/TV, most successful partisan talk shows

have been hosted by conservatives

Which of the following statements is true?

Objective journalism is based on communication of facts and fairness

The Gazette of the US was founded to promote the policies of President

George Washington

Which of the following statements has been shown by scholarly research to be true?

Most journalists tend to lean Democratic in their personal beliefs.
Traditional media does not have a substantial/systematic liberal bias.
Networks prefer to cover more negative topics.

Congressional staffers spend most of their time on

constituency and public relations

Legislation whose tangible benefits are targeted solely at a particular legislator's constituency is

pork-barrel legislation/projects

Compared with the Senate majority leader, the Speaker of the House has more power because

the Speaker is the chamber's presiding officer and has clear power over the House of Reps.

In contrast with the Speaker of the House, the Senate majority leader is

not the chamber's presiding officer and is equal to other Senate members

What is a standing committee in the House/Senate?


When the House/Senate pass different versions of a bill, the differences are resolved by a

conference committee

One must be ___ yrs of age to serve in the US House of Reps. and ___ yrs of age to serve in the US Senate.


The second most powerful federal official (after the president) is often said to be the

Speaker of the House

Senators are generally are less likely to take directions from their leaders than the House because

there are less members of Senate than the House, and Senate members are more likely to view themselves as equals with their leaders

Most of the legislative work of Congress is performed by

standing committees

Which nation does NOT have a one-house dominant legislature?


Through a vote for cloture, the Senate

limits the time for bill debate and beats filibusters

Congress typically takes presidential proposals

into consideration but does not always adopt them

By and large, partisanship is

the philosophical and political difference that define that parties
(A huge source of cohesion and division within Congress)

What is the biggest reason that Congress does not vigorously pursue its oversight function?

The task is extremely demanding because there are thousands of agencies and programs to oversee.

3 Major functions of Congress's policymaking role


Bills are formally introduced in Congress by

committee hearings

Most of the work done on legislation in Congress is done by

standing committees

News media coverage of Congress and the President is

focused more on the President than Congress

There are currently ____ voting members of the US House of Reps. and ____ voting members of the US Senate.


What is the strategy employed in the Senate to prevent a bill from coming to a vote?


Which of the following statements is true?

Roll-call voting, in more recent times, has divided along party lines.
The split in the parties is most evident on major domestic legislation.

The trading of votes between members of Congress so that each gets the legislation he/she wants is called


Committees kill more than ___ percent of all bills submitted to Congress


A bill has been approved in the House and the Senate, albeit in slightly different versions. The bill now goes to

conference committees

What percent of state legislators are women?

about 20%

The president's constitutional roles, such as chief exec. and commander in chief,

have expanded in practice

The president's role in foreign policy increased largely because of

WWII and the emergence of America as a world power (new role in international role)

Which of the following is true of the vice presidency?

No direct power is assigned to the VP by the constitution; VP power depends on the President

President Obama's failure in his early months in office to enact policies to combat global warming, despite his determination to do so, is reflective primarily of

force of circumstance

The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in


Which of the following did the framers want from a president?

national leadership
statesmanship in foreign affairs
commander in war time
enforcement/administration of laws

The presidency was created by Article ____ of the US Constitution


Which of the following presidents failed to win an electoral majority but still won the presidency?

George W. Bush
Rutherford B. Hayes
Benjamin Harris

After which party convention sis the Democrats force major changes in the presidential nominating process?


Which president did NOT serve as a state governor before being president

Obama, Kennedy, Nixon, Johnson, Eisenhower, Ford, George H. W. Bush

Which of the following is part of the EOP?

White House Office (WHO)
Office of Management Budget (OMB)
National Security Council (NSC)

Constitutional requirements for being president

35 years old
natural born US citizen
US resident for 14 years

The presidency is

an office of conditional power that depends one the president's abilities, congressional/public support, & circumstance

A president's accomplishments have largely depended on

force of circumstance
stage of the president's term
nature of the issue
support/lack of support from the public

The honeymoon period occurs during

the first months

Political scientist Aaron Wildavsky's "two presidencies" thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with Congress on policy involving

foreign issues/policy

The forced removal of a president from office through impeachment and conviction require action by the

House (vote to impeach) and the Senate (conducts trial, votes to remove or not)

Which of the following is a principle of bureaucratic organization?

hierarchical authority
job specialization
formalized rules

A president's policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president has

public support

Compared to the President & Congress, the bureaucracy

has a more direct impact on the everyday lives of Americans

Federal regulatory agencies have responsibility primarily in the area of

economic activity

Most federal employees are hired on the basis of

the merit system

Federal civil service employees cannot legally

go on strike

Policy implementation refers to the bureaucratic function of

carrying out the decisions made by the courts, Congress, and the President

As distinct from the patronage system, the merit system for managing the bureaucracy

is neutral because people are hired based on skills and they are not partisan appointees

When it was developed during the Jackson administration, the patronage system was designed to

tie the administration of government to the people by filling administrative offices with supporters of the winning party

the administrative concept of neutral competence holds that the bureaucracy should

be neutral in that employees are not partisan employees and should serve everyone

Bureaucrats tend to follow

the agency that they are from

The federal bureaucracy today is

90% merit-based with some patronage employees

When an individual believes that he/she was improperly disadvantaged by a bureaucrat's decision and contests the decision, the dispute is usually handled by a(n)

administrative law judge

Legally the bureaucracy derives general authority for its programs from

acts of Congress

The Department of _______ was created in 2002

Homeland Security

The cabinet department with the largest number of full time civilian employees is the Department of


The Department of _____ was founded in 1889


The number of employees in the federal bureaucracy is about

2.5 million

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