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Population Biology

r-adapted species

Specie that have high reproductivity (ex:mosquito) (growth at their biotic potential/exponential growth)

What type of graph is created by r-adapted species?

J-curve followed by boom and bust cycles centered on the carrying capacity

K-adapted Species

Produce more slowly as they approach the carrying capacity of their environment (ex: humans)

For k-adapted species, growth may be exponential for a time, but...

it can't be sustained

What type of graph is created by k-adapted species?

logistic growth, S curve (sigmoidal growth)

4 Density Dependent Limiting Factors

1. Food
2. Water
3. Disease
4. Predation

3 Density Independent Limiting Factors

1. Drought
2. Frost
3. Loss of Habitat


The ability to reproduce


Number of offspring produced


Production of new individuals


Death rate


% reach an age

Life Expectancy

Avg. Lifetime

For population growth, density independent factors tend to be ____

Abiotic (ex: heat, drought, fire, etc.)

For population growth, density dependent factors tend to be ____

Biotic (ex:predation, competition for resources, overcrowding, etc.)

Islands populations are natural experiments that apply to _____ biology


On islands ____ populations are more likely to go extinct than ___ ones

small, large

Large, near islands are more ____ than small far ones


Large diverse populations tent to maintain a ______

Genetic Equilibrium

Smaller, isolated populations lose diversity through what 4 things?

1. Founder effect
2. Demographic Bottlenecks
3. Inbreeding
4. Genetic Drift
(also used to determine minimum viable population size)

What can several small, isolated populations benefit from?

Gene Flow

Periodic immigration and emigration can create what?

A Metapopulation (helps preserve genetic diversity)

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