96 terms

Geo Final

UVic 101A
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range of intolerance
when limiting factors are too high or too low to permit growth
niche
the combination of all chemical and biological factors necessary for life in a species
specialist species
a species with a narrow niche, susceptible to population fluctuations as a result of environmental change
pyrophyte
plants that have adapted to tolerate fire, eg. ponderosa
Albedo
the ability of a surface to reflect light, eg. polar ice caps= high
carbon sink
absorbs and contains a carbon containing compound for an indefinite period of time
Arbutus
The only broad leafed conifer that lives in shallow soils. It sheds many leaves and greatly contributes to the soil base
edaphic climax
A climax community determined by soil factors ei. PH, salinity, drainage
secondary succession
the process where one community replaces another community that has been partially or totally destroyed by a disturbance while the soil is left intact
plagioclimax
where the succession proccess is interrupted by humans and reverted back to an earlier stage, eg. england
extripated
When a species becomes extinct in a certain are but still exists elsewhere, eg. Javan Rhino
Allelopathic
a plant that exudes chemicals that inhibit the growth of other species
K-strategists
Fewer young, more care, slower development, later reproductive age, longer life, eg. Panda, caribou
R-strategists
More offspring, faster development, fewer survive, quick growth and reproduction, eg. Salmon
Keystone species
An organism that has a large effect on it's ecosystem, and is vital to the food chain, eg. tiger
Ex-situ conservation
involves removing a population from it's natural habitat and attempting to establish a growing population elsewhere (either in captivity or in the wild).
chemoautotroph
A producer organism that converts inorganic chemical compounds into energy, eg. bacteria
Thermohaline circulation
The movement of carbon containing water around the globe as a result of differing water densities and salinity
Trophic Levels
Functional classification of organisms according to feeding relationships
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
The total amount of energy produced by autotrophs over a given period of time
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
GPP-Respiration
Abiotic factors
wind, light, soil, temperature, precipitation
Benthic
Of or living at the bottom of a water body
Competitive Exclusion Principal
No 2 organisms can occupy the same niche
Mutualism
A relationship between two species that benefits both (Food, Transport, Protection)
Commensialism
A relationship between 2 species where only one benefits but the other does not come to harm
Ecological Succession
The gradual replacement of an assemblage of species by another as conditions change overt time.
Primary succession
The development of a biotic community in an area that was previously devoid of life (pioneer community), eg. lichen moss
Climax community
The Last Stage of the succession process. Involves a stable, long lasting, complex, and inter-related community of organisms
Seral stage
A stage in the ecological succession process
Disturbance
A natural of human induced event that interrupts ecological succession
eutrophic
pertaining to a bod of water rich in nutrients
eutrophic zone
the zone in the ocean where light still reaches
eutrophication
over fertilization of a water body by nutrients that produce to much organic material for the water body's natural purification system to overcome
inertia
the ability to withstand change
resilience
ability to recover
positive feedback
a situation where one change gives rise to conditions that promote change in the same direction
HI
YOU
Synergism
an interaction between two substances that combine to have a greater effect on than either one alone
Biotic potential
the rate at which a population can increase given optimal conditions
speciation
the formation of a new species
Law of conservation of matter
matter cannot be created nor destroyed but can only change shape
macronutrient
a nutrient that is needed in large quantities by an organsim (oxygen, carbon, water, all cycle nutrients)
Micronutrient
a nutrient that is needed in very small quantities by an organism
Biogeochemical cycles
A series of biological, geological, and chemical processes by which materials cycle through an ecosystem
Nitrogen Fixation
The conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia by bacteria, eg. the bacteria on the roots of legumes
Denitrification
The conversion of a nitrate to molecular nitrogen by bacteria in the nitrogen cycle
Mineralization
The process where biomass is converted into ammonia and ammonia salts by bacteria (returned to soil when plants and animals die)
Transpiration
The loss of water through plant pores
oxygen sag curve
Positive feedback loop: The reduction of oxygen in water when organic waste is introduced, and the amount of oxygen consuming bacteria increases to break it down. this results in an increased sediment base and a shallowing of the water body. this further concentrates the organic material and causes the level of oxygen to be further reduced as the loop continues.
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
The amount of oxygen needed for bacterial decomposition of organic waste
point sources
easily discernable "end of pipe" sources of pollution
Non-point sources
Pollution that does not have any singly definable source, and is spread out over a large area, eg. agricultural runoff
Scientific target value
A target set solely on the basis of scientific information
Policy target value
A target set as a compromise between scientific, economic, political, social, and cultural values
Dominant Limiting Factor
A chemical or physical factor that determines the survival of a given organism in it's ecosystem, eg. most commonly phosphorous
Liebigs Law of the Minimum
all factors necessary for growth must be available in minimal quantities if an organism is to survive
Shelford's Law of Tolerance
All species exist within certain environmental limitations with respect to necessary growth factors. These limitations are the tolerance range of the species.
entropy
A measure of disorder (the amount of energy lost in a transformation)
Law of energy degradation
in energy conversions the transformed energy is always reduced to lower quality (2nd law)
energy
the capacity to do work
heat
the total energy of all moving atoms
saprotroph
an organism that get it's energy from non-living organic matter, e.g. earth worm
auxiliary energy inputs
external energy sources that reduce the cost of internal self maintenance
Acid rain
contains hydrogen, sulphur dioxide
pH
Logarithmic scale of the amount of hydrogen ions
acid shock
A dominant limiting factor in fresh water ecosystems. A build up of acid in a very short period, e.g. snow runoff that contains acid rain
buffering
the ability of a substance to absorb impacts
green revolution
Development in plant genetics. involves larger yields and high auxiliary inputs
GMO
involved splicing the genes of another species to give the target organism especially resistant traits.
contemporary evolution
Selectively removing desired traits resulting in the general alteration of the gene pool of the species. e.g. african elephant tusk size
ecological extinction
a population that has been so greatly reduced that it no longer has any impact on the ecosystem
ecosystem services
resources and proceses supplied by ecosystems that humans benefit from
coevolution
if you take one away you lose the other
extrinsic values
values that humans derive from species, consumptive or un-consumptive, e.g. meat, honey
smolting
adapting skin for salt water environment
The dominion and reserved park act
established the systems of national parks as separate from the forestry administration, and the Canadian park service is the oldest in the world.
Grasshopper Effect
Chemicals volatize in environments: evaporate and condense repeatedly. Chemicals move into colder environments because of their physical properties.
Blue Carbon
refers to the ability of the ocean to absorb and store carbon.The ocean absorbs 33% of emmisions.
tetragenic
causes birth defects
anadromous
Live partly in fresh water and party in salt water.
Gravel beds
-Hides eggs and keeps them from washing away.
-gravel must be large enough to allow in oxygen, but small enough to hold eggs in place
-Siltation and erosion block up spawning beds and suffocate the eggs
chum salmon
2 ½ to 3 kg, spends short amount of time in fresh water
Coho
2.6 kg avg used to be 3.7 kg.(contemp evolution), smaller rivers.
Chinook
(bigger river systems)- largest species of salmon, 1-3 years in rivers depends on start point of journey to northern California in rivers.
Sockeye
(bigger river systems ): 2.5-3kg, most valuable, 1-2 years in rivers
estuary
A partially closed coastal water with rivers and/or streams flowing into it (One of the most productive environments on the earth).
Banff
First Canadian national park
Precautionary Principle
When possibility of serious or irreversible damage exists, the lack of scientific certainty is not an acceptable reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation
Karen
· Main group in burma
· Oldest and largest group
· Make the least money and live in the highland valleys
Lahu
· Main group in burma
· Best hunters
Akha
· Silver helmets
· Worship ancestors
· Believe they should live on ridges (access to two watersheds)
Lisu
· Outgoing
· Dress in bright colors
· Story tellers
Mong
· Outward looking
· Entrepreneurial
· Individualistic
· Widespread
· One of the greatest conservation challenges(cut down old growth)
Extrinsic factors
factors from outside the set dominant conditions
oligotroph
an organism that can live in an environment that offers very low levels of nutrients