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Mid Term Exam Review

Members of the EMS response system & Levels of training

Advanced emergency medical technician(AEMT)-a person trained in emergency care, with the additional training to allow insertion of IVs, give medications, perform advanced airway procedures, set up and assess EKG(EMT-intermediate)
Emergency medical responder(EMR)-a person trained in emergency medical care who may be called to provide such care as a routine part of the job (first responder)
Emergency medical technician(EMT)-someone who has successfully completed a state-approved EMT training program, they take over care from EMRs work (EMT-basic)

Types of procedures an EMR can/cannot perform

Can perform basic first aid and CPR
Cannot give IVs or medications

Standing Orders

Policy or protocol issued by a Medical Director of an EMS system that authorizes EMTS and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.


Lists of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situations. Protocols are developed by the Medical Director of an EMS system.

Scope of Practice

A set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope, or exent and limits, of the EMT's job.

Standard of Care

the care expected to be provided to the same patient under the same circumstances by another First Responder who had received the same training

Response to an exposure incident

Be sure to wear PPE, make sure you can approach a safe scene, call for back up

Signs of death

Decapitaion, dependent lividity, rigor mortis

Universal Precautions

set of guidelines and controls, published by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens

Standard Precautions

measures to prevent exposure to blood or body fluids that may spread disease

Body Substance Isolation

Procedures used to protect the EMT from contact with communicable diseases, including the use of gloves, goggles, masks, and gowns.

How to respond to stress

Take a deep breath, remove yourself from the situation to gather your thoughts


infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection


infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)

Names of bones

cranium, mandible, maxilla, vertabrae, clavical, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, sternum, ribs, pelvis, sacrum, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

Types of consent

implied and presumed (CPR); expressed and informed (verbal or written consent)

Requirements for negligence

to have an obligation to protect the patient, then fail to fulfill this obligation, the breach of this duty was the proximate cause of the patient's damages


An offensive touching or use of force on a person without his or her consent.

Response at a crime scene

Determine whether the scene is safe or not, call for law enforcement, do not move or touch any potential evidence unless needed to provide care

Lifts and drags

Clothes drag, arm drag, blanket drag, firefighter's drag, walking assist, direct ground lift, extremity lift, seat carry, chair carry

Mechanism of injury

MOI: The force or forces that caused an injury, it's intensity and direction.

Scene safety

do not assume the scene is safe.
always perform your own size up no matter who arrives first
Look and listen for other emergency service units approaching from side streets.
Look for signs of a collision related power outages
Observe traffic flow or blockages
Look for smoke or signs of fire.
Look for hazardous materials, placards, damaged truck, liquids, fumes or vapor clouds.
Preserve evidence

Additional resources

Assess if Law Enforcement is needed
Assess if Fire Department is needed
Assess if Hazmat Team is needed
Assess if Power Company is needed
Assess if other resources are needed.

Primary Assessment

Obtain MOI, general impression of patient, ABCs


A memory aid for classifying a patient's level of responsiveness, or mental status. The letters stand for alert, verbal response, painful response, unresponsive.

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

is used to help describe the patient's level of consciousness (LOC); establishes baseline data in each of these areas: eye opening, motor response, and verbal response. The patient is assessed and assigned a numerical score for each of these areas. A score of 15 represents normal neurologic functioning. A score of 7 represents a comatose state. Thus the lower the score, the lower the patient's LOC.

Methods of opening an airway

Head tilt chin lift, or jaw thrust

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