110 terms

Psych Disorders and Treatment

A collection of vocabulary terms from the Psych Disorders and Treatment unit (Units XII & XIII in Myers for AP 2e).
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Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Personality disorder characterized by self-preoccupation, inflated estimates of one's abilities and attractiveness, and the need for others to focus on oneself.
Conversion Disorder
A somatic symptom disorder in which a psychological problem manifests itself as a deficit in physiological functioning (e.g. blindess, paralysis). Freud called these "Hysterias".
Dissociative Disorders
Group of disorders that involve dysfunction of memory or an altered state of identity (e.g. dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia)
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Personality disorder characterized by excessive emotional reactions and excitability, as well as by the need for attention and overly dramatic behavior
Somatic Symptom-Related Disorders
This category of disorders includes psychological disorders characterized by physical symptoms without any (known) physical causes. Illness Anxiety Disorder and Conversion Disorder are examples.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Illness Anxiety Disorder
A somatic symptom disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
also called multiple personality disorder; person displays more than one distinct personality & these personalities are expressed a different times.
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
Bipolar Disorder
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
dopamine
a neurotransmitter that is associated with Parkinson's disease (too little of it) and schizophrenia (too much of it)
hallucination
sensory experience without an accompanying sensory stimulus; auditory most common
Major Depressive Disorder
depressive disorder characterized by two weeks or more of low energy and mood
Factitious Disorder
disorder in which the sufferer purposefully ingests harmful substances or engages in acts of self-harm or mutilation in order to obtain medical attention
tardive dyskinesia
side effect of antipsychotic medications; repetitive, uncontrollable muscle movements
SSRI's
most commonly used drug treatment for depression; examples include Prozac and Zoloft
benzodiazepenes
central nervous system depressants used to treat anxiety disorders; examples include Xanax, Valium, and Librium
neuroleptics
drugs used to treat psychotic disorders; includes Risperdal, Clozaril, Thorazine
Lithium Carbonate
most common drug treatment for bipolar disorder
eating disorders
anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are examples
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder marked by episodes of binge eating followed by purging (through use of laxatives or induced vomiting)
Anorexia Nervosa
eating disorder wherein the sufferer is irrationally concerned about weight gain and avoids eating, despite being significantly underweight for his/her age and height
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
caused by exposure to trauma, such as war or violence, which leads to recurring thoughts and anxiety related to the trauma
sleep disorders
narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and night terrors are examples
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis; therapist often directly challenges the patient's irrational beliefs
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
cognitive therapy developed by Aaron Beck; therapist works with the patient to correct maladaptive thoughts and harmful beliefs through hypothesis testing
systematic desensitization
behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders that requires creation of a fear hierarchy; the patient approaches tasks on the list while practicing relaxation
flooding
behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders that requires the patient confront the fearful situation at full force
counterconditioning
behavioral treatment (using classical conditioning principles) that seeks to remove the association between a particular stimulus and the fearful response
psychoanalysis
Freud's "talking cure" that includes techniques like free association, dream interpretation, hypnosis, etc.
free association
Psychoanalytic technique that requires the patient to speak of anything that comes to mind, without censorship
transference
in Freudian theory, when a patient redirects feelings for a (for example) parent or loved one toward the therapist
resistance
pauses in speech or gaps in memory that occur during free association; believed by psychoanalysts to indicate attempts at repression
Gestalt Therapy
methods pioneered by Fritz Perls; includes the "empty chair" technique, use of "I-statements" and metaphor
client-centered therapy
therapy developed by Carl Rogers; non-directive
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, humans develop to their fullest when others display this: a total acceptance of others' value (without judgment)
active listening
conversational method used by client-centered therapists: includes summarizing and clarifying questions, as well as non-verbal signals of understanding
token economy
system used to encourage positive behaviors by providing small rewards that can be exchanged for desired items; relies on principles of operant conditioning
rTMS
treatment for depression that involves passing an electromagnet back & forth close to the person's left eyebrow (left frontal lobe).
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
Dorothea Dix
known for her efforts to reform psychiatric institutions and improve living conditions for the mentally ill during the 19th century
Aaron Beck
known for developing a model of cognitive therapy
Albert Ellis
founder of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
Sigmund Freud
father of psychoanalysis
Carl Rogers
founder of person-centered (client-centered) therapy
Joseph Wolpe
credited with establishing procedure for systematic desensitization
anxiolytics
general term for drugs that reduce feelings of anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
A disorder characterized by pervasive, "free-floating" anxiety not connected to any one, specific stimulus
Specific Phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Panic Disorder
anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
Anxiety Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety (includes phobias, GAD, panic disorder, etc.)
Manic episode
a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state; occurs in persons with bipolar disorder
Persistent Depressive Disorder
a low-grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years; also known as dysthymia
Somatic Symptom Disorder
A disorder marked by a history of diverse physical symptoms that appear to be psychological in origin.
Personality Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial Personality Disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Borderline Personality Disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
Behavioral Therapies
Treatments designed to change behavior through the use of established learning techniques (for example, systematic desensitization, token economies); more concerned with change in behavior than any underlying thoughts
aversion conditioning
A method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus (e.g. a client with a paraphilia might be trained to respond negatively to a previously arousing stimulus). Also known as avoidance conditioning.
behavior modification
psychotherapy that seeks to extinguish or inhibit abnormal or maladaptive behavior by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior (i.e. use of operant conditioning techniques to adjust behavior)
modeling
use of observational learning processes to help a client change behavior; the process of observing and imitating a behavior (e.g. a therapist might demonstrate how to introduce oneself to a stranger at a party and have the client repeat/mimic the behavior).
Cognitive Therapies
Treatments designed to remove irrational beliefs and negative thoughts that are presumed to be responsible for psychological disorders; includes CBT, REBT
stress inoculation
stress management technique in which a person consciously tries to prepare ahead of time for potential stressors
Psychodynamic therapies
looks at unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms and symptom resolution in a broader manner than Freud; often more brief and present-focused than traditional psychoanalysis
Humanistic therapies
therapies that emphasize the development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive
empty-chair technique
A role-playing intervention often used in Gestalt psychotherapy in which clients play conflicting parts. This typically consists of clients engaging in an imaginary dialogue between different sides of themselves.
I-statements
promoted by Gestalt therapists and others, this type of statement illustrates willingness to take responsibility for own feeling and actions by describing our feelings, rather than evaluating others
Family & Group Therapies
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members. Group therapies, in general, emphasize shared experience and mutual support.
Biomedical therapies
the use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
Risperdal
(Risperidone) antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia; Dopamine antagonist
Haldol
(Haloperidol) tranquilizer used to treat some psychotic disorders and Tourette's syndrome; one of the "old" antipsychotics
Thorazine
An "old" antipsychotic drug thought to block receptor sites for dopamine, making it effective in treating the delusional thinking, hallucinations and agitation commonly associated with schizophrenia.
Clozaril
Antipsychotic drug; Blocks serotonin activity as well as dopamine. Requires regular blood tests to determine any abnormal changes on white blood cells (thus, less commonly used treatment)
antidepressants
drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters in the brain (e.g. SSRI's and MAOI's)
psychosurgery
brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
Bio-Psycho-Social Model
contemporary perspective that assumes biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
DSM-5
version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in 2013; includes changes to many diagnostic categories and more emphasis on severity of symptoms in diagnosis
McNaughten Rule
a rule determing insanity, which asks whether the defendant knew what he or she was doing or whether the defendant knew what he or she was doing was wrong
sanity/insanity
LEGAL (not psychiatric) determination of whether someone was aware enough of their own actions to be held responsible for their behavior.
Mary Cover Jones
"mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Little Peter" overcome fear of rabbits
Fritz Perls
Creator of Gestalt Therapy
Paraphilias
Sexual disorders and deviations in which sexual arousal occurs almost exclusively in the context of inappropriate objects or individuals. (e.g. pedophilia)
serotonin
neurotransmitter believed to be in short supply for depression-sufferers
positive symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.
negative symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
flat affect
a lack of emotional responsiveness
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
flight of ideas
symptom of schizophrenia; a confused state in which thoughts and speech go in all directions with no unifying concept
clinical psychologist
psychologist who treats people serious psychological problems or conducts research into the causes of behavior; holds a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology
psychiatrist
a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication; holds an M.D. and likely has extensive training therapy & treatment
dodo bird verdict
refers to the finding of similar efficacy (effectiveness) for widely differing therapies; in Alice in Wonderland, the dodo bird declares "all have won and all must have prizes!"
placebo effect
the healing effect that faith in medicine, even inert medicine, often has; may be one of the reasons people overestimate the effectiveness of any particular psychotherapy
light exposure therapy
Treats seasonal affective disorder (SAD); scientifically proven to be effective, exposure to daily doses of intense light. Increases activity in the adrenal gland and the superchiasmatic nucleus.
regression toward the mean
the tendency for unusual events (or emotions) to return toward their average state; may be one reason many suffering from mental disorders seem to improve with time & that benefits of psychotherapy get overestimated
meta-analysis
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies; used to evaluated effectiveness of psychotherapies
agoraphobia
a morbid fear of open spaces or places from which quick escape would be difficult (like a large crowd); often occurs with Panic Disorder (though not always)
depressive disorders
general category of mood disorders in which people show extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in life's usual activities.
rumination
compulsive fretting; overthinknig about our problems and their causes
Social Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations
linkage analysis
genetic research strategy: locate families that have had the disorder across several generations, draw blood from both affected and unaffected and examine DNA looking for differences
non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)
self-harm (e.g., "cutting," self-tattoo, burning oneself) done in order to relieve emotional distress, signal need for help, or to fit in.
binge eating disorder
Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
insight therapies
any therapy aimed at improving psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses (e.g., psychoanalytic, humanistic, some cognitive approaches)
diathesis-stress model
A model of mental disorders that attributes them to a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental stress factors.
acute schizophrenia
Type of schizophrenia that develops rapidly (due to stressor) and recovery is better; more likely to display positive symptoms. Also called "reactive"
chronic schizophrenia
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, recovery is doubtful. These patients usually display more negative symptoms. Also called "process"
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that uses technology to progressively expose people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking