How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

124 terms

Lancaster Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Anglo Saxon Years
449-1966 AD
Anglo Saxons
Plunders, farmers, craftsmen; Women had some rights; Warrior-oriented society; Pagan customs; Great Mead Hall; strong relationship between Lord and Thane
Anglo Saxon means
Angles' Land- England; Anglish- English
2 Most Important Anglo Saxon citizens
Warrior and poet/scop
The Witan
King's Counsel- Most important men of the community
Cycle of Violence
avenge the deaths of kin
Wyrd
fate/destiny and bravery can overcome fate
Paganism
non-christian religion; polytheistic branch where followers believe in many Gods; focus on nature
Fatalism
belief that every human life is in the hands of fate
432 AD
Saint Patrick Missionary in Ireland
600 AD
Converted from Paganism to Christianity
Saint Augustine
First archbishop of Canterbury
Romans
skilled in warfare; sophisticated
Druids
priests
Earls
ruling warlords
Freeman
lower class- land and commerce
Churls
serfs/slaves
Vikings
dangerous/destructive invaders
Alfred the Great
871-899; brought peace; founded schools; made English the official language; legal code; defended England from the Vikings; Only ruler in England's history to receive the title the great
Edward the Confessor
1042-1066; Last Anglo Saxon ruler; Built Westminster Abbey; Accounts of miracles after death; England's first national saint
Bede the Venerable
Author and scholar; Father of English History; first person to write scholarly and religious works in English; Spread Christianity to the people
Anglo Saxon Literature
recite memorized poems; scops; heroic and elegiac poetry
Scops
recited poems for entertainment
Heroic Poetry
warriors and battles
Elegiac Poetry
sorrowful laments that mourn the death of loved ones or the loss the of past
Battle of Hastings
October 14, 1696- Edward dies with no heir; William the Conqueror comes from Normandy with 7,000 men and 3,000 horses and conquers all of england
Beowulf
epic; translated hundreds of times; unknown author; first piece of literature written in English
Epic
Long heroic poem
Sutton Hoo
1939; Mrs. Pretty was walking around her estate and found artifacts in the hull of a ship; she owned them and donated them to a museum.
Kenning
a compound metaphorical name for something; for example, "whale's home" for the sea.
Caesura
a line divided by an audible pause
Thane
a freeman granted land by the king in return for military service; soldier or knight.
Lyric
expresses intense personal emotions
Elegy
a mournful, a melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
Lament
a passionate expression of grief; to mourn
Frauenlied
"woman's song" in German; lamenting for a lost or absent lover.
Riddles
statements, questions or phrases that have a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved; careful thinking is required to find the solution to the clues/hints
Alliteration
the repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases; "Peter Pepper picked a peck of pickled peppers".
Enjambment
a syntactic or phrasal pause at the END of the line; the thought/phrase is split between lines.
Metaphor
a direct comparison between two unlikely things without using "like" or "as".
Personification
giving non-human thing/object human characteristics.
Beowulf Character
hero of the Geats
Hrothgar
King of the Danes
Grendel
terrifying monster
Grendel's mother
another water monster
Herot
great mead hall
Comitatus
the loyalty between a thane and the king; everyone protects the king at all costs. If a king is killed, the warriors must avenge the death of the king or they can no longer serve as warriors for the next king.
Wergild
"man-price"; the price placed on a human; compensation to the family if a member is murdered.
Ubi Sunt
a verse form in which the poem or its stanzas begin with the Latin words ubi sunt ("where are")
Litotes
is a figure of speech in with an understatement is employed for rhetorical effect when an idea is expressed by a denial of its opposite.
Vaunt
a boastful remark; speech of extravagant self-praise
Simile
an unlikely comparison between two things using like or as.
Exile
separation or banishment from one's native country, region or home.
Wraecca
wretch, unhappy man, stranger and wanderer
Stoicism
enduring both pain and pleasure without fear or longing
Medieval Time Period Years
1066-1485
Medieval Period
old english to middle english; important to be a devout Christian; Code of Chivalry
Code of Chivalry
code for knights; honor, courtesy and valor
Normans
Descendants of Vikings
William of Normandy
(William the Conquerer) claimed that Edward the Confessor promised him the throne before he died; William defeated King Harold for the throne in the Battle of Hastings
Feudalism
exchange of property for personal service; lord granted property and vassal received property.
Baron
title given to nobles
Fief
land granted to Barons
Manors
land given to knights
Pheasants
worked on manors; lowest class
Chivalry
"mounted warrior" in French; Moral code of conduct of feudalism; Revolves around the knight-very prestigious position reserved for upper class; Loyalty valued
Courtly Love
custom among upperclassmen to take on lovers; secret lovers and meetings
Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury; defied King Henry II; murdered in his cathedral; people would visit his tomb
King John
singed the Magna Carta; no tax to land
Black Deaths
swept the country from 1348-1349 and killed 1/3 of the population
John Wycliffe
challenges Church-religion strayed from its roots and clergymen were too wealthy; translated the Bible into English
War of the Roses
Houses of York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose); Dispute over who should take the throne (through mother's side)
Henry Tudor
(Lancaster) marries Elizabeth of York to end the war
Vernacular
everyday language of the people
Ballad
folk song that told a story
Secular Lyric Poems
love, nature, spring, summer
Religious Lyric Poems
praising God
The Canterbury Tales
Written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer; 3 day journey from London to Canterbury to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket; 30 pilgrims (he only completed 22 stories)
Renaissance Time Period Years
1485-1625
Renaissance means
rebirth (began in Italy)
The Age of Exploration
invention of the compass and advances in astronomy
1497
John Cabot reached Newfoundland
Indulgences
remissions of punishment for sins
1517
Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on a Church door in Germany
Henry VIII
married 6 different times because he could not produce a male heir; granted full control of the church so he could get a divorce
The Stuarts
James I becomes king when Elizabeth dies (she died with no heir); Renaissance ends; Jacobean Era-rule of James; Strong supporter of arts
Sonnet Cycle
series of sonnets that fit together to tell a story
Edmund Spencer
The Faerie Queen for Queen Elizabeth
Christopher Marlowe
gifted lyric poet
William Shakespeare
created English, or Shakespearean, sonnet based off the Italian sonnet
Beowulf Setting
Denmark and Geatland; 500 AD; based on Scandinavian history and myths
Three Important Parts of Beowulf
Grendel's domination of Herot Hall; Vengeance of Grendel's mother; Rage of a dragon after a thief has stolen the treasure it was guarding
Court Poet
wrote mainly for nobility
Tabard
the bar where the Pilgrim started their pilgrimage
Prize for telling a good story
free dinner
Punishment for telling a bad story
had to pay for the whole pilgrimage
Satire
vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule
Exemplum
a brief moral story
The Tragedy Macbeth
Tribute to King James I; set in Scotland in the 11 Century
Tragic Hero
A person of high rank and quality and because of a fatal weakness, a personal flaw, he becomes involved in a series of events that lead to his eventual downfall and destruction
Blank verse
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter; 5 beats per line and every other syllable is stressed
Paradox
statement that seems to be contradictory but actually presents a kind of truth
Aside
statement delivered on stage that other characters cannot hear; reveals private thoughts or motivation
Soliloquy
long speech by a character who is alone on stage; reveals private thoughts or feelings to the audience/reader but not to the other characters
Dramatic Irony
contradiction between what a character thinks/says and what the audience knows to be true; the meaning that the character does not understand but the audience does
Atmosphere
mood of feeling; can often be described in one word; done primarily through dialogue in Shakespeare's plays; similar to the tone of a piece
Symbol
word, person, object or action that stands for something beyond itself
Situational Irony
what you think is going to happen does not actually happen
Verbal Irony
when the speaker says one thing and means the opposite
Theme
the central idea, an idea that can usually be expressed in a general statement about life; sometimes it is possible to state the theme in one sentence; it can be directly stated but more commonly it is simply implied
Exposition
main character is introduced, background information needed is supplied, basic conflict is introduced-an incident occurs that drives the story forward, setting is established
Rising Action
conflict is complicated by secondary conflicts-decisive moment for protagonist
Climax
the peak of the story-the turning point-the questionable moment-most action
Falling Action
readers see results of the climax-the "world" of the characters is changed
Denouement
conclusion/resolution/ending-readers get a sense of how the character's life will be from now on-problem is solved or eliminated
Exposition- Act 1
Witches predict the fate of Macbeth and Banquo; Lady Macbeth forces Macbeth to help her plot to kill Duncan so they can become king and queen
Rising Action- Act 2
Duncan is murdered; Guards framed and murdered; Macbeth=King of Scotland; Malcolm and Donalbain run away
Symbols- Act 2
Dagger-evilness, power, self-conscious (imaginary); Blood-sin and guilt, evidence; Water-purification
Climax- Act 3
Banquo is murdered; Fleance lives; Emergence of Banquo's ghost-Macbeth goes insane; Malcolm and Macduff are in England planning a war against Scotland; Lennox is suspicious of Macbeth; Macbeth's marriage falls apart
Falling Action- Act 4
Macbeth sees 3 apparitions; Macduff's family is murdered; Malcolm and Macduff join their armies
Denouement- Act 5
Lady Macbeth kills herself; Macduff kills Macbeth; Malcolm becomes king; 3 apparitions are fulfilled
First Apparition
Armed Head-Beware of the Thane of Fife (Macduff)
Second Apparition
Bloody Child-no man of woman born can harm you
Third Apparition
Child with Crown holding a Tree-you shall not be destroyed until the forest attacks you