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140 terms

U.S. History Semester 1

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Maya
Native group to central America located in Mexico and Guatamela.
Aztec
Native group to modern day Mexico City.
Inca
Native group to modern day Peru.
Anasazi
North American group of the southwest. Their name means "the old ones." This group cultivated corn, beans, and squash more than 3000 year ago.
Pueblo
This group was a descendant of earlier tribes in the southwest of North America. These people lived in adobe cities and practice religious ceremonies in underground Kivas.
Iroquois
A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests.
plantation
First established off the coast of Africa, this system was designed to produce commercial crops using slaves. Later this system was transported to the Americas where again slavery was utilized.
Crusades
Christian armies invade the holy lands from 1096-1270 in an attempt to recapture the what Christians considered their most holy place. Gave rise to new ideas and the eventual Age of Discovery.
reformation
Differences over church authority in Europe leads to a religious movement in which the church splits. New protestant groups from which become eventual settlers in the New World.
joint-stock companies
These kinds of companies were formed in which investors pooler their wealth together creating corporations that settled in the New World.
Columbus
Considered the first to see the Americas, he sailed under Portugal's flag believing he would find a shorter route to Asia/Indies.
colonization
This was a system of establishing outlying settlements that are controlled by the parent country. Their purpose was to created new resources and markets for products.
Conquistadores
Spanish explorers looking for new worlds to conquer and from which to prospect.
Hernan Cortez
This Spanish invader, conquered the empier of Montezuma and the Aztecs.
encomienda
The Spanish forced the native workers to labor within a system known as this. Under this system natives farmed, ranched, or mined for Spanish landlords.
Juan Pounce de Leon
A Spanish explorer that conquered Puerto Rico and then named and explore Florida.
congregaciones
Large communities that became the home for surviving natives in the northern territories of New Spain.
Jamestown
First English settlement in the New World.
indentured servants
Most of those that arrived agreed to a limited term of service for their passage. These people were called this.
royal colonies
These colonies were under direct control of the king in that the land was offered from the king for mutual profit.
John Winthrop
He was the leader and first governor of the Mass. Bay colony. He was laso the leader of the first Puritans that arrived in the New World.
Roger Williams
He was expelled from the Puritan colony for his views on the Puritan church in the colony. Likewise he didn't believe the settlers had a real claim to the land.
Anne Hutchinson
She was banished as a dissenter from the Puritan colony. She and her family moved to Rhode Island and later Penns.
William Penn
He was the founder of the Quaker colony in the middle colonies.
Quakers
These first settlers were pacifist. They were more diverse ethnically, more understanding of the natives, and better received.
Puritans
A group of reformists that broke from the Catholic church. They were concerned with too much ritual and hoped to purify the church by eliminating past rituals.
mercantilism
The economic system that England and its colonies used to bring wealth to the mother country.
balance of trade
Selling more goods that one purchases is a favorable what?
Acts of Trade & Navigation
These acts passed by the English legislative body were the structures that controle trade between England and its colonies.
cash crops
Crops that are grown for sale rather than personal consumption by the farmer are called.
middle passage
The section of the trip in which slaves were exchanged for sugar and molasses.
Enlightenment
This intellectual period in American history was marked by reason and the belief that education and science could replace the mysticism of the past.
Benjamin Franklin
A colonial figure that was noted for his belief in science. He invented and discovered many things through his search for answers to modern problems.
Jonathan Edwards
He was a Puritan that hoped to revitalize the religious fervor of the colonies. His messages were filled with "fire and brimstone."
George Washington
He was a 22 year old colonial that established first military contact with the French at Fort Duquesne.
French & Indian War
This war fought on the colonial frontier, was a successful attempt to move the French out of the Ohio Valley, and to stop Indian raids on frontier settlements.
Sugar Act
This Act by the British government was designed to challenge the colonial shipping companies and tax certain imports. The Tax was designed to strengthen the economy of England and reduce the power of colonial merchants.
triangular trade
Process by which merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa; exchanged goods for slaves; transported to the West Indies and traded for sugar and rum.
Stamp Act
A tax levied on goods and services, created in 1765.
Boston Massacre
On March 5, 1770 a fist-fight broke out over jobs, this incident was labeled the __________.
Boston Tea Party
One December night a group of rebels disguised themselves as native americans and dumped 15,000 pounds of _____ in to a harbor, this event was later known as _____________.
King George III
This man pressed the Parliament to act, after the destruction of British property.
Intolerable Acts
This group of laws which includes the Quartering Act, and a law that shut down Boston's harbor are known as what?
Common Sense
Published by Thomas Paine, this 47 page pamphlet attacked King George III and the British monarchy.
Thomas Jefferson
A Virginia lawyer, he was assigned the task of writing the Declaration of Independence.
Declaration of Independence
This document formally announced the colonies separation from Great Britain.
Loyalists
Colonials that continued to support the King and England were called.
Patriots
Colonials that supported the formation of a New United States were called.
Valley Forge
Washington and his men spent a dismal and demanding winter at this camp. It was here that his men almost starved to death in the winter cold.
Friedrich von Steuben
He was a Prussian captain that came to assist Washington in his winter camp. Here he trained the country bumpkins into regular soldiers.
Marquis de Lafayette
He commanded the French troops that came to assist in the colonial rebellion.
Yorktown
Considered the last battle of the American Revolution.
republic
Americans believed that a democracy, government directly by the people, placed power in the hands of the uneducated masses. Therefore, they favored this form of government in which representatives were elected which place power in capable hands.
Articles of Confederation
This document was designed during the AMerican Revolution and served as the design for government until the Constitution was written.
Great Compromise
This agreement which established a two house Congress, was designed to establish equal representation between small and large states.
three-fifths compromise
This agreement allowed black slaves in the south to be counted as part of southern states population. This offered favorable numbers in establishing representative counts.
legislative branch
Outlined in the Constitution this branch of government was the law making body.
Judicial Branch
Outlined in the Constitution, this branch of government establish a legal system.
Executive Branch
Outlined in the Constitution, this branch of government established the Presidency.
Checks & balances
In establishing the powers of the three branches of government, this system was established to create power of one branch over the other. In this way no single branch could control the other.
Bill of Rights
Before the new Constitution would be signed these amendments were added to identify the rights of the people.
Anti Federalists
Those that opposed the Constitution and its strong central government were called.
Federalists
Those that favored the Constitution and a strong central government.
ratification
The formal signing of the Constitution and its acceptance was called?
Alexander Hamilton
Chosen to be Washington's first Secretary of the Treasury, this man was also instrumental in establishing the first federal bank.
cabinet
Established by Washington, this group of official advisors became a regular feature of the executive branch.
protective tariff
An import tax on goods produced in other countries. These kinds of taxes help raise money for the national treasury and protect manufacturers and producers in the U.S.
neutrality
Given as an international response by Washington in his farewell address. This declaration would guide the U.S. through the next 100 years. It established that the U.S. would not support either side in conflicts that arose in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
sectionalism
This separation of states and thinking would someday become the curse of the U.S. It simply put, placed the interests of one area over that of another.
John Marshall
The first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he was a staunch federalist. He served the court for over 30 years.
judicial review
The ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law as unconstitutional.
Louisiana Purchase
One of JEfferson's most important Presidential decisions. This purchase from France doubled the size of the U.S.
Lewis & Clark
These two men were assigned the task of exploring the new land that Jefferson had bought from France. (2 names)
impressment
A British policy of practice of seizing men at sea and forcing/drafting them into military service.
War Hawks
A group of young southerners and westerners that pressed for war against the British in 1812.
Andrew Jackson
A famous general in the War of 1812, he later became President of the U.S. He became famous for the battle of New Orleans. As President he practiced the spoils system.
armistice
A declaration that fighting or war should end.
Eli Whitney
An inventor who in 1798 made slavery profitable in the south with his invention; the cotton gin.
interchangeable parts
Significant in the early period of the first industrial revolution was the emphasis of producing parts that were the same. This idea made mass production possible.
industrial revolution
Changes in manufacturing and how things were produced in mass brought on this period in U.S. history.
Erie Canal
Not only did manufacturing take a big leap in the early 1800s, transportation did as well. This significant project opened up transportation to the great lakes.
nationalism
Center stage in the 1800's was a strong belief in the American system. This idea promoted U.S. interests above regional and state interests.
Monroe Doctrine
This was a response to the "peace and safety" of our hemisphere. Established at foreign policy, warned European countries of attempting to reestablish themselves in central and South America.
Indian Removal Act
As the country grew in the early 1800s, Congress passed this official policy that was designed to move the Indian population off of their lands east of the Mississippi.
Trail of Tears
The name given to the vile and atrocious act of moving the Cherokee off of their land in the WInter of 1838. It described the terrible conditions and outcome of their journey.
transcendentalism
1840 brought on a movement in the east that emphasized the simple and good life. One that praised art and beauty. This philosophical period attracted many American writers of the time.
Emerson & Thoreau
These two men may be the most significant writers of the 1840s as they wrote about self-reliance and living the simple life. (2 names)
abolition
In the 1840s, this movement emphasized the freeing of all black slaves.
WIlliam Lloyd Garrison
This newspaper man head up the most significant anti-slavery newspaper.
emancipation
This idea would free all slaves without payment to slave owners.
Frederick Douglas
This man was the most important black abolitionist. He purchased his own freedom, educated himself, and worked tirelessly for freedom of all slaves.
Nat Turner
This black man lead a rebellion in Virginia. Joined by other run away slaves, they killed many whites on nearby plantations. Their actions only increased the resolve of whites to maintain slavery.
antebellum
This term refers to the south before the Civil War.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
An important anti-slavery advocate and later women rights crusader, she and others later organized their own anti-slavery convention.
cult of domesticity
The idea that women should restrict their activities to the home and raising children.
temperance movement
This movement was aimed at drinking and the evils of alcohol.
Sojourner Truth
This black woman traveled throughout the country speaking on slavery. She also crusaded for abolishing drinking and prison reform.
entrepreneurs
Businessmen and individuals that control the "means of production."
Samuel (F.B.) Morse
The man that improved on a device made by Joseph Henry, the telegraph improved communication across the country.
telegraph
A new device that enabled people to communicate electronically across the continent.
John Deere
A blacksmith, he invented the steel plow.
Cyrus McCormick
An inventor, he invented the mechanical reaper.
manifest destiny
The belief that the U.S. was favored by God in expanding and settling the North AMerican continent.
mormons
A religious group that left Illinois and traveled to Salt Lake to create a new religious settlement.
Brigham Young
This man became the second leader of the group at Salt Lake. He lead his religious group across the plains to found Salt Lake City.
Stephan F. Austin
He lead the first of several groups to settle land in Texas which was at the time a territory owned by Mexico.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
The president of Mexico, he lead troops against the settlers in Texas.
Alamo
A small Franciscan mission outside of San Antonio, it was here that AMerican settlers took a stand against the president of Mexico.
Sam Houston
He was commander and chief of the rebel forces that attacked the Mexican president at San Jacinto River. Mexico was defeated and Texas became an independent Republic.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
This treaty was signed after the Mexican AMerican war establishing the Rio Grande as the border between Mexico and the U.S.
forty-niners
This term describes the settlers that flocked to California in search of gold.
gold rush
A term that describes the event of gold fever that caused many settlers to travel west.
secession
The formal withdrawal of a state from the Union.
popular sovereignty
THe right of residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery.
underground railroad
Free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves at great risk to themselves. This system of escape routes became known as the ____.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
This book was published in 1852 and became an immediate best seller. Although many of its characters were stereotypes and its scenes unbelievable, it delivered the message that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
John Brown
He was an abolitionist fanatic who together with his sons killed white slave owners. He was considered the "meteor" of the Civil War.
Republican Party
This was a newly formed political party that nominated Abraham Lincoln as their Presidential candidate.
Dred Scott
He was a slave that had been taken to Illinois by his master. Upon return to the south he sued for his freedom. His case became an important consideration in the days before the Civil War. The Supreme COurt ruled that this man was not a citizen and unable to have his day in court.
Abraham Lincoln
He is considered on the United State's greatest presidents. He served during the Civil War and was assassinated before its conclusion.
Confederate States of America
On February 4, 1861, delegates from the secessionists states met in Montgomery, Alabama to form this new nation.
Jefferson Davis
He was the President of the newly formed secessionist nation.
Fort Sumter
This was considered the first battle of the Civil War. No lives were lost during this 24 hour siege.
Bull Run
The first battle in which lives were lost. Just 25 miles from the Union capital, the confederate troops turned the battle into a victory overrunning the northern troops and the citizens of D.C. that ad come out to watch.
Stonewall Jackson
HE became one of the important southern generals in the first battles of the war. Standing near a wall during battle, he was an inspiration to his troops to turn the tide of battle and win the day.
George McClellan
He was the first Union general of the Army of the Potomic. He was good at training troops but never proved himself in battle.
Ulysses S. Grant
He became the commanding general of all Union forces after Gettysburg. Considered a drunk and poor leader by many, this genreal became the deciding factor in the Union victory.
Robert E. Lee
This man became the commanding general of the Army of Virginia. He was considered the finest and most successful general of the Civil War.
Antietam
A battle near a sluggish little creek, it proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American History with over 26,000 lives lost in that single day.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln freed the slaves in states that had not yet been secured by Union troops with this document. With it, Lincoln put an end to possible European involvement.
Andersonville
This prisoner of war camp was considered the worst in the South. Conditions were so bad that no shelter was provided. Drinking water and sewer were from the same stream.
Clara Barton
She became a famous Northern nurse. She was so knowledgeable of troop movements that she often arrived before the soldiers at the battlefield. After one battle she was described as "the angel of the battlefield."
Gettysburg
This battle was considered the turning point of the Civil War for the Union Armies. Prior to this moment in the war, Northern generals had been beaten badly by the South.
Gettysburg Address
The famous speech given by Lincoln that became a halmark of the war and the honor that should be given to the men that had given their lives.
Sherman's March to the Sea
He was commander of the Union's Mississippi division. He led his troops through the south burning everything in this 30 mile wide path. This maneuver is considered one the significant events in ending the Civil War.
Appomattox Courthouse
It was here in March 1865 that two generals me to sign the surrender papers that ended the Civil War.
Merrimack & the Monitor
These two ironclad ships pitted against each other in a sea battle that made wooden ships obsolete.
13th amendment
This document was to be signed by southern states before they could reenter the Union. The document freed all slaves and was an acknowledgement of that act.
John Wilkes Booth
This man is credited with the assassination of the president He was later surrounded in a barn, shot and killed.
income tax
As the northern economy grew during the war, this act by Congress was first used to tap into some of that money to help pay for the war.