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AP World Chapter 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (30)
An ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits.
A small independent state consisting
of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Meso- potamia, Archaic and Clas- sical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
Socially transmit- ted patterns of action and expression. Material culture refers to physical objects, such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts. Culture also includes arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city- states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices.
Structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times.
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period.
Many versions of a well-nourished and pregnant female figure were found at Çatal Hüyük. Here she is supported by twin leopards whose tails curve over her shoulders. To those who inhabited the city some 8,000 years ago, the figure likely represented fertility and power over nature
of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.
In the governments of many ancient societ-
ies, a professional position reserved for men who had undergone the lengthy training required to be able to read and write using cuneiforms, hieroglyphics, or other early, cumbersome writing systems.
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern mem- ber of the Semitic family is Arabic.
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. It was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age.
who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture, such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions, taken over by their Semitic successors
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution
Passage Tomb at Newgrange, Ireland
Dating to around 3200 b.c.e., Newgrange is one of the oldest and most impressive Neolithic stuctures. A wall of white quartz stones rises above a row of horizontal megaliths on either side of the entrance, from which a passage leads to a spacious interior chamber. For several minutes each year, at sunrise on the winter solstice, the chamber is illuminated by
a shaft of light which passes through the "roof-box" above the entrance.
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eigh- teenth century B.C.E. and
the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E.
A massive pyrami- dal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes
in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.
Small charmmeant to protect the bearer from evil. Found frequently in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia and Egypt, amulets reflect the religious practices of the common people.
A system of writ- ing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated
in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administra- tors and scribes.
An alloy of copper with a small amount of tin (or sometimes arsenic), it
is harder and more durable than copper alone. The term Bronze Age is applied to the era—the dates of which vary in different parts of the world—when bronze was the primary metal for tools and weapons. The demand for bronze helped create long-distance networks of trade.
The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt.
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order.
A large, triangular stone monument, used in Egypt and Nubia as a burial place for the king. The larg- est pyramids, erected during the Old Kingdom near Mem- phis with stone tools and compulsory labor, reflect the Egyptian belief that the proper and spectacular burial of the divine ruler would guarantee the contin- ued prosperity of the land
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids.
Capital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings
of writing in which picto-
rial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or con- cepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because
of the long period of study required to master this sys- tem, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbol-forms were devel- oped for rapid composition on other media, such as papyrus.
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Medi- terranean and Middle East
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of culti- vation (in modern Pakistan) and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran.
Largest of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River in contemporary Pakistan. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large scale of construction at Mohenjo-Daro, the orderly grid of streets, and the stan- dardization of building mate- rials are evidence of central planning.
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