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M2 Microbiology Lecture 1
Terms in this set (28)
Hospital acquired infection
infections manifesting of day 3 of hospitalization or later
healthcare associated infection
occur as a result of a healthcare exposure. Include HAI's, but also those acquired in nursing homes, infusion centers, home health visits
What is HAI surveillance?
involves reproducible tests. often requires extraction from EMRs. Impacts accreditation and reimbursement.
How many people die per year with HAI's? How many infected?
Die: 100,000. Acquired: 2,000,000
What are some life threatening HAI's? Non- Life threatening?
life threatening:Blood infection, pneumonia, surgical site infection. non: UTI,
List 3 forms of infection control
environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, vaccination
limitations to Infection control
limited time, resources. Poor compliance. Outpatient settings, dialysis centers, etc.
modes of transmission of infection
contact, droplet, airborne/ aerosol, blood/body fluids, food/water, vector.
major risks for HAI?
indwelling devices, debilitated state
how to prevent HAI?
hand hygiene, contact precautions, pt isolation, cohorting
what typically precedes infection?
can healthcare workers chronically colonized with resistant pathogens transmit to patients?
yes, but very uncommon as long as you have good hygiene
what type of device is a major risk factor for HAI?
indwelling catheters: central vascular, foley catheter, endotracheal tube
why are indwelling devices associated with HAI?
patients are vulnerable (very sick), they bypass host immune systems, they are frequently handled by HCW's
name some significant causes of HAI
bacteria: MRSA, vancomycin resistant enterococcus, extended spectrum b-lactamases, C. Diff, pseudomonas a., acinobacter baumannii
Respiratory infectionsMycobacterium Tb, flu, RSV,
who is particulaly succeptible to Staph A. infection?
Hemodialysis patents, diabetics on insulin, IV drug users
S. Aureus colonization sites:
anterior nares, skin (axilla, groin, lesions), invasive devices (Trach. site, IV site, catheter, etc)
Specific examples of HAI prevention
standard, universal: hand hygiene, gloves, gowns, personal protection. limit indwelling devices, limit antibiotic exposure, discharge ASAP.
what are contact/barrier precautions? what do they entail?
ramped up to prevent spread in hospital. Typically for multi drug resistant organisms.
gloves and gown when entering room, remove after leaving room. use dedicated equipment when possible. disinfect equipment.
explain Droplet percautions. what infections require this?
private room, use surgical mask, hand hygiene. infection: pertussis, flu
esplain special respiratory precautions. Give example infections
negative pressure room, keep door closed. surgical mask/ N95 respirator, hand hygiene. Tb, measles, varicella
what are AFB isolation precautions
for people with Tb for example. Negative pressure room, respiraotr required, limit patient transport, hand hygiene
What is respiratory etiquette?
hand hygiene, cough in sleeve, annual flu shot, don't be gross
why are nosocomial infections so common?
one cause is low compliance with precautions by HCW (gloves, gowns, hand washing, etc.)
what is DAZO?
substance used to monitor cleaning. can see in UV light.
Common causes of needlesticks:
patient movement, manipulation of device. not using neutral zone correctly, rushing, not wearing protection,etc.
how to dispose of sharps
never recap, bend, break. don't overflow containers, use recepticle/tray instead of transferring to someone else.
safe sharps use in the OR
use hands free technique/ verbally announce when transferring to scrub personnel. keep surgical unit pencils secured when not using. load blades with instrument. Recap with one hand. use neutral zone
Sets found in the same folder
Micro lecture 2: pathogen classification
Micro Lecture 3: Bacterial Structure and Metabolims
Micro Lecture 4: Intro to Virology
Micro Lecture 5: pathogenesis
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